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A Very Fine Pair of 1800's English, Cased, Rifled Duelling Pistols, of Capt Robert Lloyd RN By John and William Calvert

From the time of King George IIIrd'. The family have found the original duelling pistol's case, but they are photographed as is, at present, without the case, but it should arrive in the next few weeks. A stunning pair of original English duelling pistols, with a pair of silver inlaid barrels by one of Europe's finest barrel makers of his day, Christoph Kuchenreiter of Bavaria. It was often the case that a gentleman when commissioning a pair of finest pistols would request the addition of the finest imported barrels for the German rifle barrel maker's were, with good reason, considered to be some of the finest in the world. The stocks are finest Juglans Regia walnut, and the steel mounts and lock bear some of the best England had to offer. After very considerable, and diligent family research the intriguing potential history of these finest duelling pistols is detailed herein. They were originally from the estate [over some 150 years ago] of the late Admiral Robert Lloyd RN 'Admiral of the White' a Royal naval flag rank officer of distinction who served at the Glorious Ist of June, in the Anglo French War, the Napoleonic Wars against Napoleon, and in the War of 1812 in America. During the War of 1812 the US government approved the innovative and experimental use of a Torpedo in order to sink his ship, HMS Plantagenet, and thus sabotage its blockade of New London. The pistols bear his personal family monogram and his personal Lloyd's family silver crest of a demi lion argent in two cartouches at the pistols wrists. It would be wonderful to think these pistols accompanied the then Captain Lloyd aboard his ships during these incredible eventful times in his career. They were made by John & William Calvert, who were fine English gunsmith's with premises together at 73 Briggate Leeds, between 1804-1822. The barrels are by one of the greatest Bavarian rifled barrel makers in Europe, Johann Christoph Kuchenreiter, and are thus inlaid with his name in gold. These are simply outstanding examples of the highest-grade flintlock pistol barrels produced by the famous Bavarian gunsmith Johann Christoph Kuchenreiter. Kuchenreiter was part of a dynasty of Bavarian gunsmiths that produced highest quality arms for many of the royal houses of the various Germanic states and Austria. His pistols are in the British Royal Collection, and examples of his work are in all of the finest museum arms collections in the world. Robert H Lloyd. Vice-Admiral of the White, was born 24 March, 1765, and died 17 Jan. 1846, at his family seat, at Tregayan, county Anglesey.

He entered the Navy, on the 31 March, 1779, as a Captain's Servant, on board the HMS Valiant a 74 gunner, then as a Midshipman berth in HMS Fairy under Capts. Berkeley, Keppel, and Brown, he was wounded in a sharp action which preceded the capture of that sloop by the French frigate Madame. After a captivity of some time in France, he was prisoner-exchanged around March, 1781, and on his return to England was received on board the Medway a 74 gunner, under Capts. Harwood and Edgar. He next, between May, 1782, and July, 1787, served on the Channel station in HMS Hebe a frigate, under Capts. Keppel and Edw. Thornbrough, and on 22 Nov. 1790, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. Obtaining an appointment, in Dec. 1792, to the Latona 38, Capts. Thornbrough and Hon. Arthur Kaye Legge, Mr. Lloyd fought under the former of those officers in the action of 1 June, 1794; and on rejoining him as Senior Lieutenant in HMS Robust, he served in Lord Bridport's action, and was severely wounded in the expedition to Quiberon. On 6 Dec. 1796 he was promoted to the command of HMS Racoon in the North Sea; where, after a short running fight, in which the Racoon had 1 person, the Master, killed, and 4 wounded, he succeeded in taking, on 11 Jan. 1798, Le Policrate a French privateer, of 16 guns and 72 men;and, on 22 of the same month, La Pensee, of 2 guns, 9 swivels, and 32 men. Capt. Lloyd, who had previously captured Les Amis, of 2 guns, 6 swivels, and 31 men, made further prize, 20 Oct. following, at the end of a running action of two hours, of La Vigilante, of 14 guns and 50 men. Prior to his attainment of Post-rank 6 Dec. 1799, he had the increased good fortune to sink a French lugger, and to eifect the capture of the privateers Le Vrai Decide, of 14 guns, 4 swivels, and 41 men, and L'Intrepide, of 16 guns and 60 men, 13 of whom were killed and wounded. On the latter occasion he unfortunately received a wound in the head from a half-Pike. His last appointments were ? 12 Jan. 1801, to the Mars 74, bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Thornbrough in the Channel, where he remained until April, 1802 to 25 March, 1807, to the Hussar 38, in which ship, after assisting at the reduction of Copenhagen, he visited North America and the West Indies 31 May, 1809, and 25 Sept. 1810, to the Guerriere 40, and Swiftsure 74, flagship of Sir John Borlase Warren, both on the North American station and, 11 Feb. 1812 (after ten months of half-pay), to the Plantagenet 74. Continuing in the latter vessel until paid off in April, 1815, Capt. Lloyd was at first employed in the Baltic, and afterwards again in North America, where he captured a large number of coasters, and accompanied the expeditions against Washington and New Orleans. He commanded HMS Plantagenet in the Chesapeake campaigns 1813-15 in the War of 1812. In Spring 1813, the US Congress passed the Torpedo Act, offering rewards to any private citizen who succeeded in blowing up a British vessel. During the British blockade of New London, Connecticut, on June 25, 1813, a schooner loaded with explosives blew up next to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Ramillies killing one British naval officer and ten Royal Navy seamen. While not exactly a torpedo attack, the incident sent a clear message that open warfare was declared on enemy war vessels while in United States waters. Adm. Sir John Borlase Warren, chief of the North American naval station blustered, "the Enemy are disposed to make use of every unfair and Cowardly mode of warfare." Another British naval officer labelled the use of torpedoes "a most dastardly method of carrying on the war."
On the 26th of September, 1814, the General Armstrong was lying at anchor in the road of Fayal. Her aster was Samuel Chester Reid, 3 and she had a crew of ninety men on board. A British squadron, composed of the Plantagenet, 74, Captain Robert Lloyd, Rota, 38, Captain Philip Somerville; and Carnation, 18, Commander George Bentham, hove in sight towards sundown. Experience had taught the Americans not to trust to the neutrality of a weak Power for protection; and Reid warped his brig near shore, and made ready to repel any attempt to cut her out. Soon after dark Captain Lloyd sent in four boats. He asserted that they were only sent to find out what the strange brig was; but of course no such excuse was tenable. Four boats, filled with armed men, would not approach a strange vessel after nightfall merely to reconnoitre her. At any rate, after repeatedly warning them off, Reid fired into them, and they withdrew. He then anchored, with springs on his cables, nearer shore, and made every preparation for the desperate struggle which he knew awaited him. Lloyd did not keep him long in suspense. Angered at the check he had received, he ordered seven boats of the squadron, manned by about a hundred and eighty picked men, to attack the privateer. He intended the Carnation to accompany them, to take part in the attack; but the winds proved too light and baffling, and the boats made the attempt alone. Under the command of Lieutenant William Matterface, first of the Rota, they pulled in under cover of a small reef of rocks, .where they lay for some time; and, at about midnight, they advanced to the attack.

The Americans were on the alert, and, as soon as they saw the boats rowing in through the night, they opened with the pivot-gun, and immediately afterwards with their long 9's. The British replied with their boat carronades, and, pulling spiritedly on amidst a terrific fire of musketry from both sides, laid the schooner aboard on her bow and starboard quarter. A murderous struggle followed. The men-of-wars' men slashed at the nettings and tried to clamber up on the decks, while the privateersmen shot down the assailants, hacked at them with cutlass and tomahawk, and thrust them through with their long pikes. The boats on the quarter were driven off; but on the forecastle the British cut away the nettings, and gained the deck. All three of the American mates were killed or disabled, and their men were beaten back; but Reid went forward on the run, with the men of the after division, and tumbled the boarders back into their boats. This put an end to the assault. Two boats were sunk, most of the wounded being saved as the shore was so near; two others were captured; and the others, crippled from their losses, and loaded with dead and disabled men, crawled back towards the squadron. The loss of the Americans was slight. Two were killed and seven wounded. The fearful slaughter in the British boats proved that they had done all that the most determined courage could do. Two-thirds of the assailants were killed or wounded. The number killed was 34, including Lieutenants William Matterface and Charles E. Norman. The number wounded was 86, including Lieutenant Richard Rawle, Lieutenant Thomas Park, R.M., Purser William Benge Basden, and two Midshipmen.

The brig's long 24 had been knocked off its carriage by a carronade shot, but it was replaced and the deck again cleared for action. Next day the Carnation came in to destroy the privateer, but was driven off by the judicious use of the long-gun. However, as soon as the wind became favourable, the Carnation again advanced. Further resistance being hopeless, the General Armstrong was scuttled and burned, and the Americans retreated to the land.
Use of Fulton's torpedo in the Chesapeake Bay was sanctioned by Secretary of the Navy William Jones who told Capt. Charles Gordon of the Baltimore U.S. Navy station to give every aid to a Mr. Elijah Mix. In a secret memo of May 7, Jones instructed Gordon to furnish [Mix] with 500 lbs of powder, a Boat, or Boats, and Six men. Mix made several attempts to blow up the ship of the line HMS Plantagenet on blockade duty off the Virginia capes. On July 24, Mix almost succeeded in his plans but the torpedo exploded prematurely, deluging the decks of the British vessel with seawater. It appears from Elijah Mix's April 27, 1815 letter to Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Crowninshield requesting his furlough from the Navy that Mix had been kicking his heels waiting for new employment after his efforts to sink Plantagenet, because Crowninshield's predecessor, Secretary William Jones, suspended the torpedo program:

"Permit me. . . To remark that I have [a]waited orders at this port [New York City] since October 1814 when I was released from the torpedo service from the compliment that I had the Honor to receive from the President, after my expedition against the Plantagenet, I had no doubt but I should resume my Command again, in the Chesapeake; but unfortunate for me and my country Mr. Jones was Opposed to torpedoes. I have spent independent of my pay upwards of two thousand Dollars and one years hard service to acquire a perfect knowledge of the use and certainty using those formidable Engines with Effect, but to my mortification all aid has been withdrawn. . . ."

While it possible that Secretary of the Navy Jones caved into British pressure against the use of such a dastardly method of warfare, Hamlin mentions a letter from Jones in which the Secretary gave Elijah Mix a sharp reprimand for not continuing with his efforts to sink the Plantagenet. Thus, the suspension of the program may have had more to do with Jones?s distrust of Elijah Mix's diligence than any submission to British pressure. On the 29th December 1813, HMS Plantagenet was off Bermuda and her commander, Captain Robert Lloyd wrote to his Admiral with a list of his successes against America so far. It was very long:

Sloop Jolly Robin of 4 men and 50 tons, from Boston bound to Charleston, captured September 8 1813.
Schooner Torpedo of 40 tons from New York bound to New Orleans, captured September 11 1813.
Sloop Olive Branch of 50 tons captured same date.
Schooner Delight of 50 tons captured September 15 1813.
Schooner name unknown captured same date.
Schooner Jacks Delight of one gun from New Orleans bound to New York captured October 12 1813.
Schooner Sparrow of 1 gun and 100 tons from New Orleans bound to New York captured November 3 1813.
Sloop Elizabeth of 30 tons captured November 5 1813.
Sloop James Madison of 1 man and 25 tons from New Orleans bound to New York captured November 7 1813.
Sloop Active of 5 men and 57 tons from New York bound to Savannah captured November 12 1813
Sloop Lady Washington of 15 men and 70 tons from Savannah bound to New York captured November 15 1813.
Schooner Betsy of 5 men and 60 tons from Savannah bound to New York, captured November 21 1813.
Schooner Margaret and Mary of 5 men and 37 tons from Philadelphia boudn to New York captured November 27 1813.
Sloop Anna Maria of 7 men and 60 tons from Philadelphia bound to New York captured same date.
Schooner John and Mary of 60 tons from New Orleans bound to New York captured November 29 1813.
Sloop Five Sisters of 5 men and 60 tons from New York bound to Philadelphia captured December 2 1813.
Sloop New Jersey of 42 tons from Barnygatebound to New York captured same date.
Sloop Two Peters of 3 men and 38 tons from Little Egg bound to New York captured same date.
Schooner Batsch of 3 men and 61 tons from New York bound to Little Eggcaptured December 4 1813.
Schooner Unicorn of 6 men and 30 tons from Savannah bound to New York captured December 5 1813.
Schooner Margaret of 2 men and 36 tons from New York bound to Barnygate captured December 8 1813
Sloop Victory of 60 tons from Savannah bound to New York captured December 10 1813.
Schooner Little Mary of 3 men and 26 tons from New York bound to Charleston captured December 12 1813.
Schooner Rapid of 21 men, 1 gun and 115 tons from Havannah bound to New York captured December 16 1813.
Schooner Mary of 4 men and 34 tons from Philadelphia bound to Salem captured December 17 1813. sighted octagonal polygroove rifled barrels fitted with rear leaf sights, inlaid in silver with scrolls and I Christoph Kuchenreiter, the breeches are set with the maker's tablet embossed with horse and rider and the initials ICL, border engraved stepped locks signed by the maker, incorporating an automatic safety on half cock, French style cocks, rainproof pans, roller frizzens, full stocked with steel mounts, the trigger guards engraved with the owner's initials of Robert Lloyd and with pineapple finials, circular white metal escutcheons engraved with the owner's crest of a demi-lion, slab-sided butts chequered to the fore and rear, brass capped wooden ramrods. Small stock repair at the lock area during its working life.

Code: 22120

18950.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Fabulous WW2 Officers Ancestral Sword For A Prestigous Clan Member Of The Toyatomi Clan

This is a stunningly presented beautiful ancestral officer's sword, in its later mounted Shingunto senior officer's mounts, and, complete with its blade's wooden bespoke storage mount [called a shirasaya]. Its final WW2 military mounting that the blade was fitted within, was bespoke amde for its last high ranking Japanese family owner serving his emperor, as a senior officer in the IJA in WW2. The blade is bearing the engraved name of Master Swordsmith, Hoki no kami Taira Ason Masayoshi. This antique ancestral bladed sword that was mounted for a superior officer who served in WW2, bearing his clan mon, a mon that is based upon the old pawlonia flower clan mon of the Great Toyotomi clan, the Goshichi no Kiri mon, meaning "Five Seven Paulownia", in silver on the hilt. However, this antique samurai blade, made in the 8th year in the reign of the Emperor Kansei, bears the name of a most prestigious maker, who ranks among the very best Japanese master sword smiths seen in Europe today. One of the two Master Shinshinto smiths of Satsuma. His blades have attained some of the highest recognition by shinsa Japanese sword expert appraisal committee, and can be extremely valuable indeed if by the master himself. This is a perfect opportunity to 'potentially' obtain one of this highest ranking shinto smith's 'school or pupil's swords' that can be seen outside of Japan. A master smith, personally ranked in Hawley at 75 points. The very highest grade over 75 points never or very rarely ever leave Japan. Masayoshi was born in 1733. According to Fred Weissberg; "He was the son of the second generation Masayoshi (the character for "Yoshi" is different). Masayoshi's family name was Ichiji and he had three first names, Jiemon, Kakazo, and Shoei. Masayoshi was employed by the Satsuma clan and used the inscription, "Satsuma Kanko", in his signature in 1793. This means official smith of the Satsuma clan.

He received the title, "Hoki no Kami", at the same time as the other famous Satsuma smith, Motohira. From that time on, Masayoshi changed the character, "Yoshi", used in his name to another character with the same pronunciation. The last dated blades made by this smith were made in Bunka 14 (1817). He died in 1818 at the age of 86.

Masayoshi was one of the two master smiths of Satsuma in Shinshinto times. It is said that more than forty students studied under him. The school includes his son, Masakuni, and Yoshimoto. In this school the characters, "Yoshi"or "Masa" are commonly used by students as part of their smith names. Originally the paulownia crest was the coat of arms used by the Emperor family. That imperial government…, the Meiji era at that time used up paulownia crests, and the customs continue to this day. This clan mon was of Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( March 17, 1537 – September 18, 1598) who was a preeminent daimyo, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Hideyoshi is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms. He financed the construction, restoration and rebuilding of many temples standing today in Kyoto.
He is also known for ordering the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598).
When the Western army of Toyotomi was defeated in the Battle of Sekigahara , many of the Toyotomi family and retainers were relegated to Satsuma and Choshu. The mon was later adopted by the Imperial Japanese Government mon. 38 inches long overall in shira saya, blade 27.5 inches long. Out of interest, a blade officially confirmed by Japanese shinsa as actually by Hoki no kami Taira Ason Masayoshi are now selling in Japan from £15,000 to £20,000, thus we are certainly not stating it is by the master personally, but possibly by his school or maybe pupil, but it is an interesting point.

Code: 23266

5950.00 GBP


Shortlist item
V.Rare Incunabule, Vitae Pontificum, Ist Ed, 1479 By Bartolomaeus Platina

Pope Sixtus IVth's Appointed Vatican Librarian. Over 525 years old. When Bartolomeo Sacchi ('Platina', 1421-1481) wrote his Vitae pontificum (Lives of the Popes) and presented it to Pope Sixtus IV in 1475, he surely could not have imagined how influential it would become over the centuries. His was the first papal history, the lives of the popes from the time of Jesus Christ, to the reign of Sixtus IV, composed as a humanist Latin narrative and, as such, marked a distinct breakthrough in relation to the Liber pontificalis, the standard medieval chronicle of the papacy. Whatever Platina's intentions for the book that was published in 1479, it soon came to be regarded as the official history of the Roman pontiffs, an icon of the earliest printing. Formerly from the library of the renown Abolishionist William Roscoe, sold by him at auction in 1816 for ?1.13/-, due to the financial difficulties of his banking house, and acquired by order of the Library Committee of the City of Bath Reference Library. This book was likely commissioned due to the influences of Pope Sixtus IV [Francesco della Rovere] upon his librarian, it's author, Bartolomaeus Platina. We show in the gallery a painting of Pope Sixtus appointing Platina as the official Vatican Librarian. An Incunable is a most rare book, pamphlet, or broadside (such as the Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474) that was printed?not handwritten?before the year 1501 in Europe. They are the earliest form of printed books. Incunabula include the Gutenberg Bible of 1455, probably the most valuable book in the world. This is a First Edition of Bartholomaeus Platina's great history of the lives of the Popes, the first systematic papal history, not only to create the first detailed history of the Popes but also to villify his mortal enemy Pope Paul IInd Pietro Barbo. This book was created in the era of the great Rennaiscance, in the time of the notorious Borgias and in the year of the notorious Pazzi conspiracy, which was a plot by members of the Pazzi family and others to displace the de' Medici family as rulers of Renaissance Florence. It was printed at the time that Leonado De Vinci drew the hanging of a Pazzi conspiritor Bernardo di Bandino Baroncelli. On 26 April 1478 there was an attempt to assassinate Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano de' Medici. Lorenzo was wounded but survived; Giuliano was killed. The failure of the plot served to strengthen the position of the de' Medici. The Pazzi were banished from Florence. During the time the Platina served as the first librarian at the Vatican under its modern founder, Sixtus IV. Platina started his career as a soldier employed by condottieri, before gaining long-term patronage from the Gonzagas, including the young cardinal Francesco, for whom he wrote a family history. He studied under the Byzantine humanist philosopher John Argyropulos in Florence, where he frequented other fellow humanists, as well as members of the ruling Medici family.

Around 1462 he moved with Francesco Gonzaga to Rome, where he purchased a post as a papal writer under the humanist Pius II (Enea Silvio Piccolomini) and became a member of the pagan-influenced Roman Academy founded by Pomponio Leto. Close acquaintance with the renowned chef Maestro Martino in Rome seems to have provided inspiration for a theoretical treatise on Italian gastronomy entitled De honesta voluptate et valetudine ("On honourable pleasure and health"), which achieved considerable popularity and has the distinction of being considered the first printed cookbook.

Platina's papal employment was abruptly curtailed on the arrival of an anti-humanist pope, Paul II (Pietro Barbo), who had the rebellious Platina locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo during the winter of 1464-65 as a punishment for his remonstrations. In 1468 he was again confined in Castel Sant'Angelo for a further year, where he was interrogated under torture, following accusations of an alleged pagan conspiracy by members of Pomponio's Roman academy involving plans to assassinate the pope.

Platina's fortunes were revived by the return to power of the strongly pro-humanist pope, Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere), who in 1475 made him Vatican librarian?an appointment which was depicted in a famous fresco by Melozzo da Forl?. He was granted the post after writing an innovative and influential history of the lives of the popes that gives ample space to Roman history and pagan themes, and concludes by vilifying Platina's nemesis, Paul Iia paragraph from Platina's Vit? Pontificum first gave rise to the legend of the excommunication of Halley's comet by Pope Callixtus III,
Vit? Pontificum ("Lives of the Popes", 1479) "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of "incunabula", Latin for "swaddling clothes" or "cradle", which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything." A former term for "incunable" is "fifteener", referring to the 15th century. Vitae pontificum, FIRST EDITION, 239 leaves (of 240, lacking first leaf), 39 lines, roman (and a little Greek) letter, capital spaces with guide letters, a few early marginal ink annotations, tears repaired to 2 leaves, small worm trace in upper margin of approximately 30 leaves (touching letters on approximately 20), inner margins of final leaves strengthened at gutter margins and a few other small paper repairs, gnawing to some fore-corners, blindstamp on approximately 6 leaves, late seventeenth/early eighteenth century red morocco gilt, sides panelled with corner, side and central decorations, spine gilt-tooled (including title and publication date) in 7 compartments within raised bands, rebacked preserving most of original spine. [Venice], Johannes de Colonia and Johannes Manthen, 11 June 1479. William Roscoe's copy of the first editon of Platina's history of the Popes.

Provenance: William Roscoe (1753-1832), historian and author of Lorenzo de Medici (1796) and The Life of Pope Leo X (1805), with a 10-line pencil note in his hand, above which an ink note reads "Notes by Wm. Roscoe vide infra. Coll. By him". One of this books former owners was the renown William Roscoe (8 March 1753 ? 30 June 1831). He was an English historian, leading abolitionist, art collector, M.P. Lawyer, banker, botanist and miscellaneous writer, perhaps best known today as an early abolitionist. 11.25 inches x 7.5inches x 2.25 inches.

Code: 20006

4950.00 GBP


Shortlist item
M1886 French 'Rosalie' Lebel Bayonet, Used in Both WW1 & WW2

As WWI loomed on the horizon, no army had as much faith in the spirit of the bayonet as France. The concept was “attaque à outrance” - the idea that massed French infantry could conquer an objective at the point of their bayonets though sheer élan. They were mistaken. The French even nicknamed their bayonet “Rosalie” after a song of the era. The Germans called the French bayonets “knitting needles.”

These are two Model 1886 Lebel bayonets. The French called this style an épée bayonet, after the épée sword used in fencing, because of the cruciform cross section of the blade. Both bayonets have 20 ½ inch (52.7 cm) long blades, but they can be found in various lengths as the blades were often repointed when the tip broke off in field use. The French also modified many of these bayonets in 1935 by shortening them.

Originally the bayonets had a nickel-silver handle and a hooked quillion. By 1916, with the need to conserve nickel for the war effort, the handles were made of brass. About the same time they were manufactured without the quillion, likely because the French discovered the quillions were more apt to get caught on equipment straps than catch the downward thrust of an enemy bayonet. They became just as popular in WW2.

Code: 23265

215.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Solid Gilt Bronze, Beautiful, Independence of Brunei 1984 Desk Cannon

In fine deluxe gilt finish, a modern representation of a an early Lantaka Cannon and Carriage, bearing the Royal Crest of the Sultan of Brunei. Especially commissioned for the Independence of Brunei in January 1984. Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace, it is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is completely surrounded by the insular Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo; the remainder of the island's territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia.. The government is an absolute monarchy under the Sultan, which implements a combination of English common law and sharia law, as well as direct general Islamic practices.

At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) is alleged to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, Seludong (modern-day Manila), and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. The maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War.

During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline. The Sultanate ceded Sarawak (Kuching) to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British.

Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. 28cm long

Code: 11497

295.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Scarce, Italian 1938 WW2 Issue Bayonet- Fighting Knife.

With original frog mount, and a lot of original blueing. In pretty much sleeper condition. A nice and pretty unusual bayonet cum fighting knife used by the Italian Fascists and Germany in WW2 .Used by soldiers of the German Heer and SS of the Third Reich on the imported guns that were sent from Italy. It was initially designed as a folding bayonet but the action proved to have a weakness so it was adapted and strengthened by making it non-folding knife which in fact made it more efficient and popular as a close combat knife. As it's design was also so very neat, as compared to the K98 Mauser bayonet, with a sound blade but around the size of a British FS dagger, it proved to be an excellent close combat knife, and it was popular as such by the both of the German-Italian axis allies, although not many German troops got to have them. Good piece, with original serial number, and most collectable.

Code: 15098

275.00 GBP


Shortlist item
A Rare WW2 Japanese Jungle Sword, ‘Heiho’ Made from a Captured Dutch Sword

Under German occupation itself, the Netherlands had little ability to defend its colony against the Japanese army, and less than three months after the first attacks on Kalimantan the Japanese navy and army overran Dutch and allied forces, ending 300 years of Dutch colonial presence in Indonesia. A lot of their weaponry was captured, and some were converted for use by the Imperial Japanese Army. The Dutch cutlass or klewang was one such weapon. These Japanese adapted weapons have very distinctive features such as the cutlass bowl hilt being removed, and the swords were then re-issued to the Japanese forces for use in the Jungles of Burma etc. They are very scarcely seen rare items these days and highly sought after. There is a near identical example to be seen in the British Royal Maritime Collection.

Code: 16852

295.00 GBP


Shortlist item
Thomas Carlyle's 'Heroes.., From Field Marshal Keitel's Personal Library

A Thomas Carlyle: On Heroes and Hero-Worship and the Heroic in history. German Josef Neuberg. R. v. Decker, Berlin, 1917, taken in 1946 from the family library and home of Field Marshal Keitel, bearing the Ex Libris book label of his family and eldest son, who he lost in the war. Karl-Heinz Keitel SS-Sturmbannfuhrer of 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer, awarded the German Cross in Gold, Iron Cross 1st Class for heroism, Iron Cross Iind class, Close Combat Clasp & Wound Badge in black. Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (22 September 1882 to 16 October 1946) was the most famous German field marshal of WW2 who served as chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Supreme Command of the Armed Forces) for most of World War II, making him the Chief of Defence for Germany and Hitler's number two after Reichmarshall Goring. At the Allied court at Nuremberg, he was tried, sentenced to death, and hanged as a war criminal. He was the third highest-ranking German officer to be tried at Nuremberg. Karl-Heinz Keitel was born on 2 January 1914, in Wolfenbuttel, the eldest son of Wilhelm Keitel who would rise to become Chief of the OKW, the German Military High Command, during World War II. Karl-Heinz joined the Heer in 1934 and served in various cavalry units following the outbreak of war in 1939. In June 1943 he was assigned to the Kavallerie-Schule in Potsdam-Krampnitz, and served as a battalion commander, and later the regimental commander of the Kavallerie-Regiment Nord. On 5 August 1944, he transferred into the Waffen-SS and served with the 22. SS-Freiwilligen-Kavallerie-Division "Maria Theresia". On 20 October of that year, he was promoted to command SS-Freiwilligen-Kavallerie-Regiment 17 / 22.SS-Freiwilligen-Kavallerie-Division "Maria Theresia" in the area of Hungary. In November 1944, combined with the Florian Geyer division, the "Maria Theresia" was assigned to the garrison of Budapest. On 12 December he was wounded in action while defending against Red Army probing attacks into Budapest for which he was awarded the Wound Badge in Black.
In March he transferred to the 37. SS-Freiwilligen-Kavallerie-Division "Lutzow" as its commander, and led the 2000 strong remnants of the division in heavy fighting around Wiener-Neustadt as part of 6. SS-Panzer Armee. He was reportedly promoted Obersturmbannfuhrer (Lieutenant Colonel) in the closing months of the war. The book's label also bears the label of his wife Dorothee, the daughter of the Werner Eduard Fritz von Blomberg (2 September 1878 - 14 March 1946) was a German Generalfeldmarschall, Minister of War, and Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces until January 1938. The marriage of Karl-Heinz and Dorothee was one of the reasons her father, Generalfeldmarschall von Blomberg, was forced to resign by Hitler in 1938 It was in order to avoid a damaging scandal caused by the Generalfeldmarschall's new wife's criminal history as a prostitute that was discovered by Himmler. It was an extraordinary discovery as both Hitler and Goring attended her wedding to Keitel.
This is a typical book that struck home to the Nazi psyche as it extols the virtues of a radical new thinking progressive hero that could lead a stagnant peoples out of the darkness of old fashioned ideals and values. It could not have been more perfect for the supporters of Adolf Hitler and his new Nazi principles. Progress through National Socialism, where the working classes could rise up rid themselves of the shackles of the old, backward thinking nobility and upper classes. Effectively communism but with a different hat. It is certainly not to say that Carlyle was any way connected with their views at all, but the premise of a Heroic new thinker to lead his people to a working class based Arian promised land fitted Hitler and his supporters perfectly. Thomas Carlyle: On Heroes and Hero-Worship and the Heroic in history. German Josef Neuberg. R. v. Decker, Berlin, The book, a series of six lectures that Carlyle delivered to London audiences in 1840, represents not so much soundly based ideas about the making of history as it does Carlyle?s view of how the world would be if powerful and inspired people were to have the power he thought they deserved. The book thus became England?s contribution to the nineteenth century cult of the ?great man,? a dream that was most seductively attractive to intellectuals forced to put their ideas in the marketplace with all the other merchants, but closed off from the real power that was being exercised in the newly industrialized world by economic entrepreneurs. Like most nineteenth century historians and philosophers, Carlyle promotes the notion that progress is good and inevitable; unlike many of his contemporaries, however, he does not believe that the passage of time in and of itself assures progress. Only when persons of heroic temperament step forward to lead the masses can true progress for society occur. The persons featured in On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History were just such people; their actions, and their willingness to live in accordance with the vision of society that motivated them, changed history for the better. Carlyle finds no one around him acting in a way to set his own age right; given to commercialism and self-gratification, the people of nineteenth century Europe lack the will or the leadership to make something worthwhile of their lives. If his work is not totally successful in conveying a portrait of heroism good for all times, it does succeed in showing Carlyle’s disenchantment with the nineteenth century and its lack of political heroes, as he saw it. Another volume that we know of, also originally from Field Marshal Keitel's library, an 1827 first edition of Alexander Pushkin’s The Robber Brothers printed in Russian, was appently given to Keitel in 1941/2, after it's liberation from another but unknown Russian Ex Libris collection during Operation Barbarossa. That volume was given, in its turn in 1945, to Marshal Zhukov, commander of the Army of the USSR, and bears his Red Star stamp, and also Keitel's military stamp.

Code: 19641

975.00 GBP


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German WW2 Large Anti Tank Rifle Grenade, Gross Gewehr Panzergranate

In excellent unexploded condition. Description; taken from US Bulletin No. 59, March 7, 1944 ;

This grenade is fired from the rifled 3 cm. discharger cup (Schiessbecher) which can be fitted to most types of German rifles. It is of the hollow charge type and consists of a steel head containing the explosive and a light alloy or steel and plastic stem containing the fuze and gaine. The propelling cartridge contains a wooden bullet.

The body which is of pressed steal contains a steel cone around which the main filler of T.N.T. is cast. A steel washer with a small central hole rests on the open end of the cone and above the latter is a steel ballistic cap. At the bottom of the T.N.T. is an exploder pellet of penthrite wax.

Two varieties of the stem have been found, one entirely of light alloy, the other of plastic with a steel shank by which it is screwed on to the head of the grenade. At the base of the stem is a rifled band which corresponds with the rifling in the discharger cup. The stem is divided into compartments by a perforated septum, the lower containing the fuze, the upper the gaine. In the septum is a small flash pellet held in plaoe by a perforated screw plug. The gaine consists of a light alloy container into which is inserted a light alloy top hat containing the detonator, the space below being filled with penthrite wax.

The fuze is in the after portion of the stem and consists of a striker over the top of which fits a retaining spring with four prongs bent downward into grooves in the striker body. Around the striker body is an arming collar which has two grooves cut on the inside. An arming spring is compressed between a lip on the arming collar and a second collar at the bottom of the striker body. Around the inside of the arming collar and resting on the striker body is a steel tape which acts as an additional safety device and prevents any possibility of the fuze being accidentally armed when screwing on the base plug.

The entire assembly is closed by a base plug which positions the fuze by a stem which fits into a recess in the rear of the striker body.

Operation

On firing, the shock of discharge causes the arming sleeve to set back against its spring. The four prongs of the retaining spring are forced out of the lower groove in the arming sleeve and engage in the upper groove, retaining the arming sleeve in its lower position. This allows the steel tape to unwind and the striker is then free to move forward on impact firing the gaine. Not suitable to export, for sale to over 18s only, safe inert and empty

Code: 19597

145.00 GBP


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A Rare Imperial German 'Upgraded' WW2 Kriegsmarine Senior Officer's Dirk, Admiral Grade

A fabulous World War I & WW2 Imperial and Third Reich Nazi German naval officer's dagger that was been upgraded in the 1930’s for service in the Third Reich era and WW2. Most usually daggers of this rarity were the preserve of senior naval officers of WW2, such as Kapitan zur See, Kommodore, & Admirals, that had served as young officers in the WW1 Imperial German navy, and thus permitted to upgrade their Imperial naval officer's dirk. Improved by the addition of the 1930’s swastika bearing eagle pommel, of the then current WW2 Kriegsmarine dirk. It has a stunning Imperial period hammered deluxe grade scabbard [1902 pattern] with oak leaf hanger bands and rope twist ring hangers. A double sailing ship etched Imperial blade [tip shortened] with two sailing ships and traditional fouled anchor, and an upgraded Third Reich eagle and swastika hilt pommel with wire bound ivorine grip. Much of the original gilt is present and the blade bears just a little age staining. Daggers of this form are now so rare as to be almost impossible to find, with sailing ship etched blades, as good as this one, they are highly desirable, and much sought after by collectors, regularly valued at up to three times or more compared a regular 1930s example. Admiral Doenitz carried the very same kind of upgraded Imperial to Nazi dagger from his WW1 service into WW2. You may never find a better example than this. Karl Dönitz [16 September 1891 – 24 December 1980] was a German admiral during the Nazi era who briefly succeeded Adolf Hitler as the German head of state in 1945. As Supreme Commander of the Navy since 1943, he played a major role in the naval history of World War II. He was convicted of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials in 1946.He began his career in the Imperial German Navy before World War I. In 1918, he was commanding UB-68 when she was sunk by British forces. Dönitz was taken prisoner. While in a prisoner of war camp, he formulated what he later called Rudeltaktik ("pack tactic", commonly called "wolfpack").

At the start of World War II, he was the senior submarine officer in the Kriegsmarine, known as Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote (BdU). In January 1943, Dönitz achieved the rank of Großadmiral (grand admiral) and replaced Grand Admiral Erich Raeder as Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. Dönitz was the main enemy of Allied naval forces in the Battle of the Atlantic. From 1939–1943 the U-boats fought effectively but lost the initiative from May 1943. Dönitz ordered his submarines into battle until 1945 to relieve the pressure on other branches of the Wehrmacht (armed forces). 648 U-boats were lost—429 with no survivors. Furthermore, of these, 215 were lost on their first patrol. Around 30,000 of the 40,000 men to serve on U-boats perished

Code: 19558

1895.00 GBP


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