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A Very Fine French Indian Wars 'Queen Anne' Large Breech Loading Flintlock
An absolute rare beauty, a large silver mounted officer's side lock holster pistol, with breech loading turn off barrel, Circa 1730 by Samuel Harrison of Bond St. London. Sliding safety, excellent crisp fully working action. Overall in very good condition. Used from the Anglo-French American Wars, through the American Revolution and into the Napoleonic Wars era. His maker's name is on the lock plate face, under the frizzen spring, but it is partially worn. He was the master gun maker whose apprentice was the famed Benjamin Griffin [from 1718], who in his turn took over Samuel Harrison's business in Bond St. in 1735. The barrel is a large .57 inch bore. From this very gun shop Captain Thomas Hardy acquired a pair of near identical breech loading pistols, made by Harrison's successor, Benjamin Griffin, and he subsequently gave that pair to his friend and commanding officer Admiral Lord Nelson, on June 18th 1801, and the pistols now reside in the National Maritime Museum Collection [catalogue number AAA2416]. This pistol's breech is stamped with three proof stamps as he was allowed to proof guns as a 'Foreigner' of the gunmakers company, with the crown surmounted 'F' Proof along with the regulation two are oval shaped proofs, a Crown over a "GP" (the gun-makers proof) and a Crown over a "V" (the "view mark") the very same way as are Nelson's pistols. "LONDON" is engraved on the top of the breech.. There four very similar examples of this pistol in the Washington Crossing State Park Museum. They are in the museum's collection of Queen Anne pistols from British Revolutionary War officers. Queen Anne sidelock pistols are known to have first been produced in the 1660's, although they did not become popular until the early 1700s, during the reign of Queen Anne I of Great Britain. The Queen Anne type pistol was used throughout the expanding English (later British) Empire, although the actual number is unclear.

Outside of England, a significant number of Queen Anne pistols are known to have been used by Revolutionary forces during the American Revolution. It is thought that many came into the possession of the Revolutionaries during the Seige of Boston (April 1775 to March 1776) after the population in the town took up arms against the British who controlled the town. For example there are a near identical pair of English sidelock breech loading pistols that once belonged, and were used by, Artemas Ward (1727-1800), a major general in the American Revolutionary War and a Massachusetts Congressman. He was also second in command to General George Washington. He is one of the famed Revolutionary War American Generals that had a most distinguished military and political career in early America. General Ward's wartime history and possibly how he acquired his pistols; following the Battle of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the rebels followed the British back to Boston and started the siege of the city. At first Ward directed his forces from his sickbed, but later moved his headquarters to Cambridge. Soon, the New Hampshire and Connecticut provisional governments both named him head of their forces participating in the siege. Most of his efforts during this time were devoted to organization and supply problems.

Additional British forces arrived in May, and in June, Ward learned of their plan to attack Bunker Hill. He gave orders to fortify the point, setting the stage for the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775. Command during the battle devolved upon General Israel Putnam and Colonel William Prescott.

Meanwhile, the Continental Congress was creating a Continental Army. On June 17 they commissioned Ward a major general, and second in command to George Washington. Ward was one of the original four major generals in the Continental Army along with Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler and Israel Putnam. Admiral Nelson's 'Queen Ann' breech loading pair of sidelocks, were also from Samuel Harrison's workshop, made by his apprentice Benjamin Griffin. Nelson's also pair have a rococo silver escutcheon plate, that is inscribed 'To Adm Lord Nelson/From his Friend/Captain Hardy/June 18 - 1801' Under the breech on each of the pistols are the same three proof marks [as can be found on our pistol] all found at the breech together: They are the same 'Foreigner's mark' of Harrison, a crowned 'F', a London Gunmaker's Mark, crowned 'GP', and a view mark of the London Gunmaker's Company, a crowned 'V'. Plus, his pistols are engraved 'Griffin, Bond Street London'

Code: 22919Price: 3250.00 GBP

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A Very Good Original 'Wolf's Tooth' Viking Socket Spear, 1000 Years Old
Detailed photographic examination has revealed this is an original Viking 'Wolf's Tooth' pattern welded spear. This can be seen on this Viking spear's edge. These are without doubt the most collectable of all the types of steel in original Viking weaponry. The forged pattern is the result of welding layers of soft and hard iron metals together, then twisting and welding again, most typically to form the core part of a blade. All the best examples of Wolf's Tooth spears and daggers are in European museums, such as in Bergen Museum, Helsinki Museum, Gothenberg and the National Museum of Hannover. We show in the gallery a picture of a near identical form of 'Wolf Tooth' Viking steel pattern welding in another similar spear in the Helsinki Museum collection known as the 'Helsinki Spear'. Our spear is identified from Bergjlot Solberg's list as a categorised type VIII 2 spear, used from 900 to 1000 AD. The socket has a typical small hole for rivetting it to its wooden haft. Collected in the 'Grand Tour' in the late 1700's. The Viking Wolf's Teeth pattern, pattern welding of blades can be seen in the Sittingbourne seax and the hunting knife of Charlemagne the Great. According to the older parts of the Gulating Law, dating back to before the year 900 AD covering Western Norway, a free man was required to own a sword or ax, spear and shield. It was said that Olaf Tryggvason, King of Norway from 995-1000 AD, could throw two spears at the same time. In chapter 55 of Laxdæla saga, Helgi had a spear with a blade one ell long (about 50cm, or 20in). He thrust the blade through Bolli's shield, and through Bolli. In chapter 8 of Króka-Refs saga, Refur made a spear for himself which could be used for cutting, thrusting, or hewing. Refur split Þorgils in two down to his shoulders with the spear. The spearheads were made of iron, and, like sword blades, were made using pattern welding techniques (described in the article on swords) during the early part of the Viking era . They could be decorated with inlays of precious metals or with scribed geometric patterns
After forming the head, the smith flattened and drew out material to form the socket . This material was formed around a mandrel and usually was welded to form a solid socket. In some cases, the overlapping portions were left unwelded. Spear heads were fixed to wooden shafts using a rivet. The sockets on the surviving spear heads suggest that the shafts were typically round, with a diameter of 2-3cm (about one inch).

However, there is little evidence that tells us the length of the shaft. The archaeological evidence is negligible, and the sagas are, for the most part, silent. Chapter 6 of Gísla saga tells of a spear so long-shafted that a man's outstretched arm could touch the rivet. The language used suggests that such a long shaft was uncommon.

Perhaps the best guess we can make is that the combined length of shaft and head of Viking age spears was 2 to 3m (7-10ft) long, although one can make arguments for the use of spears having both longer and shorter shafts. A strong, straight-grained wood such as ash was used. Many people think of the spear as a throwing weapon. One of the Norse myths tells the story of the first battle in the world, in which Oðin, the highest of the gods, threw a spear over the heads of the opposing combatants as a prelude to the fight. The sagas say that spears were also thrown in this manner when men, rather than gods, fought. At the battle at Geirvör described in chapter 44 of Eyrbyggja saga, the saga author says that Steinþórr threw a spear over the heads of Snorri goði and his men for good luck, according to the old custom. More commonly, the spear was used as a thrusting weapon. The sagas tell us thrusting was the most common attack in melees and one-on-one fighting, and this capability was used to advantage in mass battles. In a mass battle, men lined up, shoulder to shoulder, with shields overlapping. After all the preliminaries, which included rock throwing, name calling, the trading of insults, and shouting a war cry (æpa heróp), the two lines advanced towards each other. When the lines met, the battle was begun. Behind the wall of shields, each line was well protected. Once a line was broken, and one side could pass through the line of the other side, the battle broke down into armed melees between small groups of men.

Before either line broke, while the two lines were going at each other hammer and tongs, the spear offered some real advantages. A fighter in the second rank could use his spear to reach over the heads of his comrades in the first rank and attack the opposing line. Konungs skuggsjá (King’s Mirror), a 13th century Norwegian manual for men of the king, says that in the battle line, a spear is more effective than two swords. In regards to surviving iron artefacts of the past two millennia, if Western ancient edged weapons were either lost, discarded or buried in the ground, and if the ground soil were made up of the right chemical composition, then some may survive exceptionally well. As with all our items it comes complete with our certificate of authenticity. 7.5 inches long.

Code: 22918Price: 875.00 GBP

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Fine 1770's 'Ketland' American Revolutionary War Period Silver Inlay Pistol
A most beautiful and fine quality pistol, with simply amazingly spectacular case hardening and blue finish, by one of the most well known makers of 18th century pistols, used in the American Revolutionary War, by both American and British officers of both sides of the conflict. This is a pistol so beautiful that we couldn't begin to think how one could ever find a better, beautifully finished example. This type of flintlock is known as a 'Queen Anne' Cannon Barrel boxlock pistol, a finest quality version that is inlaid with silver. It was made by Ketland, Circa 1770's, and it returned to England after the Revolutionary War with its owner. In absolutely stunning and beautiful condition, with screw threaded removable cannon form barrel. A removable barrel to enable breech loading and the flintlock has an excellent and crisp working action. The fine walnut stock is scroll inlaid with silver wirework. This pistol is the very same form of pistol to one found in 2010 in a shipwreck off St Augustine. It was likely made by Ketland at the very same time as the flintlock found in a Revolutionary War ship wreck. A ship that was lost in a storm on New Years Eve 1782 off the coast of St Augustine, Florida. The other Ketland pistol now resides on display in the St Augustine Lighthouse and Maritime Museum. An American Revolutionary War shipwreck, excavated by Museum archaeologists and students from 2009-2014, recovered artefacts from a 1782 British Loyalist wreck found just off St. Augustine’s coast. It was determined that the wreck carried loyalists or Tories evacuating Charles Town, SC and fleeing to British, East Florida which was still loyal to the crown. As many as 16 ships from Charleston (the name of Charles Town today) wrecked on the St. Augustine sandbar on New Year's Eve, December 1782. As British loyalists ran in fear of the victorious Americans, many lost everything they had to the sea. Among the rare artefacts discovered, covered in concretions, was an identical silver scroll inlaid gentleman's pocket pistol, also made by the same maker Ketland in London, England. In addition, an archaeologist found the ship's bell, which was devoid of any markings. The lack of the Royal Navy motifs, such as the broad arrow, provides a clue that this ship may have been privately owned. Also, archaeologists recovered a very early carronade ( small, deck-mounted cannon) made in 1780 in the Carron Ironworks in Scotland. We include in the gallery photos of the recovered identical Ketland pistol, covered in concretions, and another picture of an X Ray, showing the recovered pistol is so much the same, even down to the silver scroll engraving that was revealed in the x ray on the pistols butt. It is only a few miles away from Brighton and near to our family that the beautiful family estate of the Gage family, the late American Revolutionary War General, General Thomas Gage, is located [nr Lewes in Firle]. Our local family town of Lewes has famous connections to the American Revolution, such as General Gage who served alongside Washington in 1755 at the Battle of the Monongahela, was, from 1763 to 1775, commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America until replaced by General Howe who took overall command in the war. And, Thomas Paine, who was also another famous Lewes man, he was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States. It is very possible that this pistol may have returned locally to us via one of General Gage's local born staff officers, who stayed on in America during the war, under General Howe and his replacement till 1782. Other famous Lewes born [Ringmer] people with important connections to America, was John Harvard, the founder of Harvard University in America, and Gulielma Maria Posthuma Springett who married William Penn, the Quaker who founded Pennsylvania.

Code: 22917Price: 1395.00 GBP

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A Most Fine & Beautiful Katana Signed Sukesada of Bizen Dated 1560
Signed Bizen kuni ju Osafune Sukesada. One of the Sukesada, Bizen smiths. A very nice Koto blade, that has seen battle, with fine mounts and, most unusually, a very interestingly, embossed leather bound tsuka, with cloisonné enamel menuki. Embossed leather was imported to Japan by the Portuguese in the 16th century and was highly prized as screens and other decorative works of art. We have also seen, although most rarely, other items decorated with this distinctive leatherwork such as samurai purses and saya coverings. The embossing on the leather are various insects, highly popular in samurai fittings décor. The fushi tsuka mount is very fine, signed by the maker, and decorated with flowers and gold buds. Harima, Mimasaka and Bizen provinces were prospering under the protection of the Akamatsu family. Above all, Bizen province turned out a great many talented swordsmiths. A large number of swords were made there in the late Muromachi period not only supplying the demand of the Age of Provincial Wars in Japan but also as an important exporting item to the Ming dynasty in China. At the onset of the decline of the Ashikaga shogunate in 1565 ad., and Yoshiteru's assassination the shogunate of Yoshiteru was filled by his two-year old son, Yoshiaki. Yoshiteru's brother was the abbot of a Buddhist monastery. He resigned this position and attempted to assume the shogunate. These efforts ultimately failed. The demand for swords began an accent to unimaginable levels. The national unrest and violent civil war did not cease until the successful takeover of the shogunate by Tokugawa Iyeyasu. The "Osafune - Kozori" group was the major supplier of blades for these events. 29 inch blade Tsuba to tip. On just one side of the blade there are combat stress hagire marks near the top section. This blade has certainly seen combat, and is simply ideal for the historical collector of beautiful samurai weaponry of battle, rather than those seeking blade condition perfection. 40 inches long approx overall in saya

Code: 22916Price: 6450.00 GBP

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A Beautiful 1640 Shinto Signed Samurai Katana
A most sophisticated and elegant yet quiet sword. With patinated copper koshirae fittings of birds feasting of sheaves of corn decorated with gold highlight and a most detailed hand struck nanako ground. Signed Echizen Kuni Shimosaka Sadatsugu. A very fine Koto sukashi tsuba on a simulated stone ground iron plate with pierced clan crest mon, and menuki of samurai arrows. The saya is black with crushed abilone shell decoration. The blade has simply amazing activity and the hamon magnificently vibrant. The rise in popularity of katana by samurai is believed to have been due to the changing nature of close-combat warfare. The quicker draw of the sword was well suited to combat where victory depended heavily on fast response times. The katana further facilitated this by being worn thrust through a belt-like sash (obi) with the sharpened edge facing up. Ideally, samurai could draw the sword and strike the enemy in a single motion. Previously, the curved tachi had been worn with the edge of the blade facing down and suspended from a belt

The length of the katana blade varied considerably during the course of its history. In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, katana blades tended to be between 68 to 73 cm (26 to 28 in) in length. During the early 16th century, the average length was closer to 60 cm (23.5 in). Overall 36 inches long in saya, blade tsuba to tip 24 inches,

Code: 22915Price: 5995.00 GBP

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A Scarce Japanese Late WW2 Officers 'Ersatz' Emergency Shin Gunto Katana
SOLD In1944-5 the last military pattern swords made for the officers [and believed, also for the collaborator officers under the IJA command] of the Imperial Japanese forces, in the Japanese occupied territories, were called the 'Ersatz' Emergency Shingunto Katana. See page 266 and 268 Fuller and Gregory's book Japanese Military and Civil Swords and Dirks for reference. Not a domestic, Japanese produced sword, but made in the occupied territories in the last year of the war, when an NCO was promoted but had no way of obtaining his correct officer pattern sword from Japan. This sword was brought back from the war with its accompanying NCO sword [our stock number 22913]. This is an absolute classic example, of a late war, fully leather covered, Japanese officer's sword, in untouched "sleeper" condition. See plates 66 and 67 in Military Swords of Japan 1868-1945, [showing two photographs of very similar examples] also by Richard Fuller and Ron Gregory. It has a traditional leather covered wooden saya, plain iron pierced tsuba and a leather covered tsuka. A good sound blade with traditional shape and form, in a totally grey state. The Japanese officers that carried these swords, more often than not, came to a rather sticky end, defending the last remaining territories of the Empire in the Pacific, usually to the death, during the final stages of the war. Those officers and men fought against the allies, in a most fearful and bloody conflict, and the casualties on both sides were simply horrific, But if captured by the indigenous peoples the Japanese officers were usually dealt with summarily, by the most understandably resentful local populace, that had usually suffered terribly under the brutal regime of the Japanese occupying forces. This was in theory though, but not always in practice, as some officers did manage to surrender to the Americans or British and managed to survive. However, they were most fortunate, unlike the hundreds of thousands of allied officers, soldiers and civilians that were captured by the Japanese in the earlier part of the war, who were, incredibly, 30 times less likely to survive imprisonment under the Japanese, compared to imprisonment by their allies the Germans. A picture in the gallery is a 1941 original Japanese propaganda poster. This is not a domestic Japanese made officer's sword, but made locally by a military armourer during the last period of the Imperial Japanese occupation of the Pacific islands and mainland territories such as Burma and Thailand in 1944/5. This sword was very dirty when first arrived but we have had our workshop painstakingly hand clean it all over, to remove only the unnecessary and accumulated surface detritus.

Code: 22914Price: On Request

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A Good WW2 Japanese NCO's Katana Sword Kokura Arsenal, Suya Co. Tokyo
SOLD Type 95, with the 1941 pattern steel oval tsuba. With full arsenal markings and stamps, matching serial numbered blade and scabbard. Fully painted tsuka with gilt highlights. A good and sound example, of an NCO issue sword of Emperor Hiro Hito's armed forces from WW2, and now a much sought after collector's piece of the Japanese Pacific theatre of war. Hilt stamped with the Nagoya Arsenal [also firearms control] stamp, Kokura Arsenal Symbol, and the most unusual logo of the Suya Co. in Tokyo, and Dept. of Control inspector stamp. The Suya mark is very interesting for the serious collector who seeks rare and unusual markings, although it makes little difference to the intrinsic value of the sword, but very nice for those that like to see rare and infrequently seen features on standard NCO and Shingunto swords. This sword was very dirty when first arrived but we have had our workshop painstakingly clean it all over, to remove only the unnecessary and accumulated surface detritus. Acquired together with our Emergency Production 1944/5 'Ersatz' Shingunto Sword no. 22914

Code: 22913Price: On Request

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A Superb Victorian Gentleman's Sword Stick, in Horn, Silver and Malacca
Silver hallmark for London, dated late 1880's, from the very same time of 'Jack The Ripper' of Whitechapel. Superb polished horn handle, long embossed silver collar, long triple edged blade and Malacca haft. A great Victorian conversational and collector's piece, and one can ponder over of the kind of gentleman who would have sought and required such a piece of personal defence paraphernalia. Although one likes to think that jolly old Victorian England had a London full of cheerful cockneys and laddish chimney sweeps, it was also plagued with political intrigue, nefarious characters and caddish swine prowling the endless foggy thoroughfares and dimly lit passageways. The swordstick was a popular fashion accessory for the wealthy during the 18th and 19th centuries. While the weapon's origins are unknown, it is apparent that the cane-sword's popularity peaked when decorative swords were steadily being replaced by canes as a result of the rising popularity of firearms, and the lessening influence of swords and other small arms. Jack the Ripper was an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished areas in and around the Whitechapel district of London in 1888. In both the criminal case files and contemporary journalistic accounts, the killer was called the Whitechapel Murderer and Leather Apron.

Attacks ascribed to Jack the Ripper typically involved female prostitutes who lived and worked in the slums of the East End of London whose throats were cut prior to abdominal mutilations. The removal of internal organs from at least three of the victims led to proposals that their killer had some anatomical or surgical knowledge. Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October 1888, and letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer. The name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by an individual claiming to be the murderer that was disseminated in the media. The letter is widely believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story and increase their newspapers' circulation. The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. The public came increasingly to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper", mainly because of the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, and because of media treatment of the events.

The first sword canes were made for nobility by leading sword cutlers. Sixteenth century sword canes were often bequeathed in wills. Sword canes became more popular as the streets became less safe. Society dictated it mandatory that gentlemen of the 18th and especially 19th centuries would wear a cane when out and about, and it was common for the well-dressed gentleman to own and sport canes in a variety of styles, including a good and sound sword cane. Overall 36.5 inches long, blade 27 inches. A fine original antique collectable for display purposes only

Code: 22912Price: 950.00 GBP

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A F. Scott Fitzgerald Great Gatsby 1st edition,1st Printing with Dustjacket
It has taken over eight years of negotiations to buy this volume from an elderly British collector. An A F. Scott Fitzgerald 'Great Gatsby' first edition, with a Great Gatsby first edition dust jacket in near mint condition can command, up to, or even well over, £120,000 [$150,000.] today, we even know of one at almost $300,000 for sale in the US. This is a most rare first edition, first printing, of one of the most desired books in the history of literature, certainly American literature. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s ”The Great Gatsby,” published by Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York: 1925, with the nearly impossible to find [part remaining] first printing dustjacket. Every point is present: 1925 is printed on title page; Charles Scribner’s Sons logo appears on the copyright page with no subsequent printing statements; ”chatter” appears on page 60; ”northern” appears on page 119; ”it’s” is printed on line 16 of page 165; ”sick in tired” is found on page 205; ”Union Street station” is mistyped on line 7-8 of page 211. Bound in dark green cloth boards with title and author’s name blind-stamped to front board and gilt lettering to spine. However, Francis Cugat’s scarce, original, unrestored first printing dustjacket, is present but very sadly torn and 40% is now missing, only the front with inner fold, spine, and rear fold are present, the back cover is lacking. This effectively reduces its value by up to £50,000, potentially making it a relative bargain. he Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald that follows a cast of characters living in the fictional towns of West Egg and East Egg on prosperous Long Island in the summer of 1922. The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession with the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan. Considered to be Fitzgerald's magnum opus, The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval and excess, creating a portrait of the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream.

Fitzgerald—inspired by the parties he had attended while visiting Long Island's North Shore—began planning the novel in 1923, desiring to produce, in his words, "something new—something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned." Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924. His editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was vague and persuaded the author to revise over the following winter. Fitzgerald was repeatedly ambivalent about the book's title and he considered a variety of alternatives, including titles that referred to the Roman character Trimalchio; the title he was last documented to have desired was Under the Red, White, and Blue.

First published by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly. In its first year, the book sold only 20,000 copies. Fitzgerald died in 1940, believing himself to be a failure and his work forgotten. However, the novel experienced a revival during World War II, and became a part of American high school curricula and numerous stage and film adaptations in the following decades. Today, The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary classic and a contender for the title of the "Great American Novel." Gallery photos from scans, 40 mgp photos on request. SOLD, [D.J.T. NY,10022]

Code: 22909Price: On Request

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A Very Good WW1 Iron Cross II K & Franco Prussian Iron Cross I K 1870
Iron Cross Ist Class, 1870, Franco Prussian War award for heroism, made in traditional form in three pieces, with two outer in silver and an iron centre, no maker mark present, central hinged pin mount. Original WW1 Iron Cross IInd Class, of traditional silver and iron 3 piece construction, silver hallmarked on the mounting ring 'EW'. The Prussian Ist class,1870 Franco Prussian War Iron Cross medal is extremely rare, and it is said that likely only around a thousand of them were ever awarded. We believe, due to its rarity, it is very likely a tailor's copy, made by a German jeweller following all the original patterning, and likely for a descendant of a recipient, for example in homage to his grandfather's achievements in the Franco Prussian war. The WW1 medal was accompanying the 1870 Iron Cross when it was taken from the remains of an aristocratic German officer by a British soldier in 1945 at the close of the war. They have been together ever since. A confirmed original 1870 Ist Class Iron Cross is now worth in excess of £4,000. so they are priced with the likelihood that the 1870 is not of its original issue period. The WW1 example is certainly from its correct issue period. Next to the Victoria Cross, it is the most famous medal in the world. The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other conspicuous military contributions in a battlefield environment. The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of two different methods: When in formal dress, the entire cross was worn mounted alone or as part of a medal bar. For everyday wear, only the ribbon was worn from the second hole in the tunic button.
The Iron Cross is a black four-pointed cross with white trim, with the arms widening toward the ends, similar to a cross pattée. It was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century.

Initially the Iron Cross was worn with the blank side out. This did not change until 1838 when the sprig facing could be presented.

Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it was annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued. For example, an Iron Cross from the First World War bears the year "1914", while the same decoration from the Second World War is annotated "1939". The reverse of the 1870, 1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year "1813" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration also has the initials "FW" for King Frederick William III, while the next two have a "W" for the respective kaisers, Wilhelm I and Wilhelm II. The final version shows a swastika. King Wilhelm I re-instituted the Iron Cross with an order dated 19 July 1870, the very day of his beloved mother Queen Luise's death. He continues: On 30 July, the day before the departure of the king to join his army, the president of the General Order Commission, Adjutant General v. Bonin, presented an 1870 Iron Cross, finished that same day, to the king. Wilhelm himself wrote on the accompanying letter from General v. Bonin: "Approved." Thus the order was given to the director of the Iron Foundry, Bergrath Schmidt, to begin casting the crosses according to the model. On 11 August, Director Schmidt announced to the jewelers authorized to make the silver frames that the Iron Cross cores could be picked up. Furthermore, Schneider recounts his manufacturing figures in detail, and states in summary that, by command of His Majesty the King, a total of 44,489 crosses had been delivered as of July, 1871 from the General Order Commission to the Military Cabinet. The foundry to which Schneider refers is the Royal Iron Foundry in Berlin, founded in 1804 and located in front of the Oranienburger Gate. In addition to the Royal Iron Foundry in Gleiwitz, the Royal Iron Foundry in Berlin manufactured cores for Iron Crosses during the Napoleonic Wars of Liberation. The Berlin Foundry had a high technical "know-how," and when undertaking to manufacture 1870 iron cross cores, its artisans could look back with pride on a long and successful company history. From their workshops, for example, that were built in 1816, the first two gear-wheel steam locomotives in continental Europe, the construction of the Kreuzberg Monument for the Wars of Liberation in Berlin, and the Berlin castle bridge, to this day testifies to the Foundry's efficacy from its location on Berlin's Invalidenstraße. But the Foundry did not undertake only large-scale projects. Its experience with decorative artwork and delicate jewelry seemed to make it the perfect choice to manufacture the cores for the Iron Cross. After the confirmation of the new core design, the first step was to make a wax model from which a master mould would be made with a soft metal like tin or silver. Then sand -- sifted several times through a linen cloth and kneaded with clay -- was mixed with water and tapped by a hammer into the mould until it was tightly compacted. After smoothing, the workpieces were pressed in and then the second, already prepared side of the mould could be attached and assembled under high pressure. After the separation of the two halves -- which could be accomplished without difficulty as the contact faces had been powdered with coal dust before -- the master pieces could be removed leaving the remaining imprints connected by fine channels. This is how a so-called casting tree was produced. After the finished casting moulds dried, the actual casting began. Experienced workers poured the molten iron from a melting pot into the provided openings of the mould, where the iron flowed evenly into the hollows. Through previously-applied outlets, the suppressed air escaped. This technique allowed the production of high quantities in the shortest time

Code: 22908Price: 795.00 GBP

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