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Original Greek Sling Bullet From The Era of Alexander
The Great 334 BC

An original 'glandes plumbeae'. The cast lead sling bullet is in delightful condition, showing good ancient patina and a super impression of a bee, representing in ancient Greek warfare as the sling bullet's 'sting of the bee'. Except the sting of the sling shot was often fatal. Discovered around 180 years ago in the region of The Battle of the Granicus River during what was known at the time as 'The Grand Tour'. Fought in May 334 BC it was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes.

The battle took place on the road from Abydos to Dascylium (near modern-day Ergili, Turkey), at the crossing of the Granicus River
The ancients do not seem to have taken advantage of the manufacturing process to produce consistent results; leaden sling-bullets vary significantly. The reason why the almond shape was favoured is not clear: it is possible that there is some aerodynamic advantage, but it seems equally likely that there is some more prosaic reason such as the shape being easy to extract from a mould or that it will rest in a sling cradle with little danger of rolling out. Plinius the Elder ascribed the invention of the sling to the Phoenicians. Strabo states that it was discovered by the inhabitants of the Balearic islands which points to the same origin, because of the Phoenician colonization there. He wrote in his Geographica (VIII, 3, 33) that the sling was imported in Greece by the Etolians, when they left Elis. Although the Old Greek term for sling (sfendünh) is only twice mentioned in The Iliad (Il. XIII, 599-600 and XIII, 716 sq.), it is not quite sure that these verses were not later interpolations. It was the lyric poet Archilochus from Paros, who first mentioned a sling around 700 bc, opposing it to the spear and the sword (Archil. Frg 3). Its early use, however, is attested by the numerous round polished stone bullets, discovered in Troy by Schliemann (Schliemann 1890, 549, No 659 sq.), as well as by the slinger depicted on a silver vase from Mycenae. Clay missiles in great amounts have been found in the layers of Neolithic and Eneolithic tells (for example: Gulubnik, Sapareva Banya, Slatino /all Southwestern Bulgaria/, Novi Pazar, Smyadovo /Northeastern Bulgaria/, etc.).

According to Herodotus (Hist. VII, 158), the tyrant of Syracuse, Gelon sent the Hellenes 20 000 men to help against the Persians, 2000 of whom (i.e. 1/10) were slingers. Thucydides mentiones 700 Rhodean slingers together with 5 000 hoplites and 480 archers in the Syracusian expedition of the Athenians in 415 bc (Thuc. VI, 22, 25, 43). The inhabitants of the highlands of Greece were the most famous slingers in Classical time: those from Akarnania, who deranged the hoplite formation with their shooting, those from Etolia, Thessaly, Achaia and Boeotia. The slingers from the island of Rhodes were the best in the Greek world, often mentioned by Thucydides (VI, 43 sq.) and by Xenophon among the Ten Thousand who marched in Persia. As with all our items it comes complete with our certificate of authenticity.

Code: 22482Price: 275.00 GBP

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1st Century Roman Equestris Legionary's Ring With Two Ridden Horses
A superb bronze 1st century signet ring in lovely condition for age, with fine patination, and stunningly engraved with a two prancing horses each ridden by legionary cavalrymen, the type that were used the equstris legionaries of, for example, the 10th Roman 'Equestris' Legion.
Legio X Equestris (Latin: Tenth Legion "Mounted"), a Roman legion, was levied by Julius Caesar in 61 BC when he was the Governor of Hispania Ulterior. The Tenth was the first legion levied personally by Caesar and was consistently his most trusted. The name Equestris was applied after Caesar mounted legionaries from the Tenth on horses as a ruse in a parley with the German King Ariovistus in 58 BC because he did not trust his Gallic cavalry auxiliaries from the Aedui tribe. Legio X was famous in its day and throughout history, because of its portrayal in Caesar's Commentaries and the prominent role the Tenth played in his Gallic campaigns. Its soldiers were discharged in 45 BC. Its remnants were reconstituted, fought for Mark Antony and Octavian, disbanded, and later merged into X Gemina. The Tenth played a crucial part in the Gallic Wars, fighting under Caesar in virtually every battle.

At the beginning of the Gallic campaign, Caesar brought the 10th legion from Spain (with the 7th, 8th, and 9th legions). Almost immediately, in the summer of 58 BC, the legion fought in two major actions, the battles of Arar and Bibracte. They played a central part in Caesar's defeat of the Helvetii tribes, preventing their migration from present day Switzerland to western France. In 55 BC Legio X was one of the two legions (together with the VII) which took part in Caesar's first invasion of Britain. It is probable that it also participated in the second invasion in 54 BC. It is possible from this era as this Xth legionaries ring was found in Britain.
The complete Roman Empire had around a 60 million population and a census more perfect than many parts of the world (to collect taxes, of course) but identification was still quite difficult and aggravated even more because there were a maximum of 17 men names and the women received the name of the family in feminine and a number (Prima for First, Secunda for Second…). A lot of people had the same exact name.
So the Roman proved the citizenship by inscribing themselves (or the slaves when they freed them) in the census, usually accompanied with two witnesses. Roman inscribed in the census were citizens and used an iron or bronze ring to prove it. With Augustus, those that could prove a wealth of more than 400,000 sesterces were part of a privileged class called Equites (knights) that came from the original nobles that could afford a horse. The Equites were middle-high class and wore a bronze or gold ring to prove it, with the famous Angusticlavia (a tunic with an expensive red-purple twin line). Senators (those with a wealth of more than 1,000,000 sesterces) also used the gold ring and the Laticlave, a broad band of purple in the tunic.

So the rings were very important to tell from a glimpse of eye if a traveller was a citizen, an equites or a senator, or legionary. People sealed and signed letters with the rings and its falsification could bring death.
The fugitive slaves didn’t have rings but iron collars with texts like “If found, return me to X” which also helped to recognize them. The domesticus slaves (the ones that lived in houses) didn’t wore the collar but sometimes were marked. A ring discovered 50 years ago is now believed to possibly be the ring of Pontius Pilate himself, and it was the same copper-bronze form ring as is this one, but that one was cleaned of its wonderful patination sadly. When Julius Caesar invaded Britannia in 55 BC, he was fully aware of the impressive horsemen of the region. Strategically, he organized a force of 2 Legions with about 10,000 soldiers with approximately 600 being Cavalry.

Code: 22481Price: 285.00 GBP

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A Very Good, WW2 German SA Dagger By One of the Rarest Makers. Gustav Neeff
Made in 1933, Gruppe marked P for Pomerania that was part of SA-Obergruppe V (Dresden), and Gustav Neeff only supplied the Pomern Gruppe. Neeff is judged as 9 out of 10 for rarity of makers. An excellent condition blade with superb etching and its original cross graining present. Original anodised scabbard with nickel mounts throughout. This earliest manufactured dagger was used by one of Hitler's early 'Brown shirt' Storm troopers. The Pomeranian SA gruppe was under the control of Franz Schwerde. He won the election to a seat in the Bavarian Landtag in 1930 and in the Reichstag since 1933. On 1 July 1934, he was appointed district president of Lower Bavaria/Upper Palatinate. Around the same time the existing Gauleiter of the Prussian Province of Pomerania, Wilhelm Karpenstein, ran afoul of NSDAP headquarters and was arrested during the Night of the Long Knives. Schwede's loyalty was rewarded when Hitler appointed him to the powerful Gauleiter position in Pomerania on 21 July 1934 and made him Oberpräsident one week later. Schwede moved to Stettin, forced 23 of the 27 District Kreisleiters out of office, and replaced Karpenstein's staff with loyal friends from Coburg.

In 1937 Schwede was promoted to SA-Gruppenführer and in 1938 to SA-Obergruppenführer. That same year, he became Chairman of the Reich League of Former Professional Soldiers (German: Reichstreubundes ehemaliger Berufssoldaten). During 1938-39, the German Pomeranian province was enlarged. Most of Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia and two counties in Brandenburg were made a district, further expanding the area he controlled. During the Reichskristallnacht on 9 November 1938, Schwede oversaw the destruction of the Pomeranian synagogues. The next day, all male Stettin Jews were deported to Oranienburg concentration camp and kept there for several weeks in order to increase the level of terror. The original leader of the SA was Ernst Röhm, one of Hitler's most loyal and faithful of followers. However, due to the alleged conspiracy against Hitler by Röhm [that was simply invented by the psychotic Henrich Himler, leader of the SS] Rohm, alongside his senior staff, was executed in a classic putsch, in an event known as 'The Night of the Long Knives'. When provided with 'evidence' of Röhm's conspiracy Hitler initially refused to believe the dossier provided by Himmler's protégé, Heydrich, as he had liked Röhm and always believed him loyal. Röhm had been one of his first supporters and, without his ability to obtain army funds in the early days of the movement, it is unlikely that the Nazis would have ever become established. The SA under Röhm's leadership had also played a vital role in destroying the opposition during the elections of 1932 and 1933. However, Adolf Hitler had his own reasons for wanting Röhm removed. Powerful supporters of Hitler had been complaining about Röhm for some time. The generals were fearful due to knowing Röhm's desire to have the SA, a force of over 3 million men, absorb the much smaller German Army into its ranks under his leadership. Further, reports of a huge cache of weapons in the hands of SA members, gave the army commanders even more concern. Industrialists, who had provided the funds for the Nazi victory, were unhappy with Röhm's socialistic views on the economy and his claims that the real revolution had still to take place. Matters came to a head in June 1934 when President von Hindenburg, who had the complete loyalty of the Army, informed Hitler that if he didn't move to curb the SA then Hindenburg would dissolve the Government and declare martial law.
His organization, the SA [Sturmabeitlung] continued, but was from then on subordinate to Himmler's SS, where before it was superior to the SS. Just minor discolouration, markings and natural wear marks, small dent on scabbard chape ball. Overall we would rate this dagger at least an 8.5 out of 10

Code: 22477Price: 1425.00 GBP

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Super, Rare Bore Musket Ball Mould, 7 Bore [7/8ths Inch] by William Davies
In excellent condition still with much blue remaining.

Code: 22471Price: 145.00 GBP

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A Very Good Ancient Muramachi Samurai O-Tanto Circa 1520-60
Beautiful blade with a very attractive hamon, most appealingly shaped blade. Mounted with original Edo fittings and a beautiful namban tsuba, Higo fushi-gashira and stunning menuki under the leather hilt binding, of a samurai in full armour on his galloping pony, decorated with pure gold. Kebori linear carved gashira depicting the meandering up and down the hill path to the mountain. This may represent a famous saying concerning Bushido, that was oft repeated by Musashi, one of the most famous samurai of all time, "there is always more than one path to the top of the mountain". Full length hi to the blade, original Edo ishime stone finish lacquer saya with optional kodzuka pocket. Namban sukashi tsuba pierced with two ho-o birds. Because of the constant threat of war and pillage in the Muromachi period, castles were built with much greater frequency than previously in towns, at mountain passes, and on larger estates. The latter type, which could take the form of fortified mansions, were known as yashiki; Ichijodani (base of the Asakura family) and the moated Tsutsujigasaki (of the Takeda family) were excellent examples of this building trend. Some castles, such as Omi-Hachiman near Lake Biwa, caused an entire town to later spring up around them, the jokomachi. Not as yet the grand multi-storied stone structures of later centuries, the castles of the period were, nevertheless, often sophisticated defensive structures despite the predominant use of wood. Constructed on large stone bases, the wooden superstructures included walls, towers, and gates, which had narrow windows for archers and from which hung boulders on ropes, ready to be dropped on any attackers. The end of the Muromachi period came when the Ashikaga Shogunate was terminated by the warlord Oda Nobunaga ( 1534-1582 ). Oda Nobunaga had expanded his territory gradually through the 1550/60s from his base at Nagoya Castle as he defeated all comers. He finally seized Heiankyo in 1568 CE and then exiled the last Ashikaga shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki, in 1573 . Yoshiaki, who had in any case always been Nobunaga’s puppet, was technically still the shogun until 1588 but he had no power as warlords now dominated the government and country. Nobunaga would rule over a much more unified central Japan until his death in 1582. The unification of the country would continue under his immediate successors, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598) and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616 ). This next period of Japan’s history would be known as the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1568/73-1600 ). 24 inches long overall, blade tsuba to tip 14 inches

Code: 22470Price: 2995.00 GBP

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A Beautiful Koto Period Ancient Samurai Long Sword 500 Years Old
Very attractive blade with a most beautiful form and gunome hamon. Very fine Edo tsuba decorated with chisseled and carved pure gold birds, inlaid into an iron ground, flying over bamboo plants with pure gold carved bamboo stems. the first mention of the word "katana" occurred during Japan's Kamakura Period (1185 to 1333). Back then, the word was used to describe a long sword with similar characteristics as the tachi but with a few nuances. The katana, for instance, generally had a longer, more curved blade than its tachi counterpart. Most importantly, however, the katana was stronger and more powerful than the tachi. The Kamakura and Muromachi periods
These two periods are considered as the most important periods of the Samurai sword's development history. Though the exact time frames for these periods is debated the period from 1185 to 1336 was known as the Kamakura while the period from 1337 to 1573 was referred to as the Muromachi period. During these periods, there were many invasions in Japan. As a result, there was need for an effective sword to fend off invaders successfully.

During battle the Japanese warriors found that it was very difficult to draw the old ken straight sword from the scabbard (saya) while fighting on a horseback. Consequently, during the Muromachi period, smiths developed the curved katana sword which was more functional during horseback fighting. Because of the design and effective cutting angles, a Samurai could easily draw their sword from the scabbard and slash their opponents in a single swing. 27 1/5 inch blade tsuba to tip.

Code: 22469Price: 3950.00 GBP

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A Superb 1st Grenadier Foot Guards Officer's Sword, Deluxe Blade
Used by an officer of the 1st Foot Guards, Grenadier Co. [that later became the Grenadier Guards]. Amongst other notable glories it is renowned as the famed regiment of Waterloo. Made and used in the Grenadier's campaigns in the Peninsular War, Quatre Bras & Waterloo. This is a simply stunning and magnificent sword [made in around 1790] from one of the most glorious and historical regiments of the British Army, the 1st Foot Guards, the Grenadier Guards no less! It is also in superb condition for it's age. Almost all of it's original fabulous etching is complete, and the blade is magnificently etched with the King's cypher, the royal crest, stands of arms, the figure of Britannia with union flag shield, a blindfolded female figure of Justice with scales and sword. The hilt grip is carved ivory with a Ist foot grenadiers grenade within the slotted guard. Original copper gilt mounted leather scabbard with thewhole length of the leather still decorated and delightfully enhanced with geometric lines and small decorative bullet patterning. Sword maker engraved by Dawes of Birmingham. Blade also engraved 'Warranted' on the obverse. One may never see a nicer or more interesting example available outside of the Royal Collection. In the campaign of Waterloo the 2nd and 3rd battalions of the First Guards, under Maitland, and the 2nd battalions of the Coldstream and Third (Scots) Guards, under Byng, formed the First Division of the army. They rendered service never to be forgotten. The Division reached Quatre Bras about half past six on the evening of June 16th, having met many wounded who said the day was going badly for us. Maitland was at once directed to clear the Bots de Bossu, on the right of the position, and his men straight away rushed into the wood with a cheer, and drove all before them, but the French turned their gun fire upon the wood, and many were killed or injured by trees cut down by the balls. Maitland's Guards were then formed outside the wood, where they were furiously charged by cavalry. Taking shelter therefore at the edge of the thicket and supported by some Black Brunswickers, they almost annihilated their assailants and, with heavy loss, held the ground.

At Waterloo the light companies of both brigades were posted in the wood and gardens of Hougoumont, where they were reinforced at midday by four more companies of the Coldstreamers, while the brigades themselves were on the ridge of the position to the rear, on the extreme right of the line. At Hougoumont the First Guards fought with heroic valour. It was a conflict worthy of Titans. In vain did Prince Jerome throw his strength against the old château, to the possession of which Bonaparte attached high importance. The walls were loop holed, and the place was held in strength, but repeatedly the French came on to achieve a temporary success, and then to be driven out again. A desperate struggle took place in the wood, where on one side or the other, men retreated fighting from tree to tree. Not less than 8,000 Frenchmen were put hors de combat in the tremendous onslaught made upon Hougoumont. But Lord Saltoun maintained his position, and renewed attacks were in vain. The loss, however, was terrible and the light infantry were almost annihilated when the Coldstreamers came to their aid. During this momentous struggle, the farm buildings were set on fire by the guns, adding immensely to the difficulty of the defence, and consigning many wounded to an agonizing death.

While the attack on Hougoumont was thus being made, a tremendous fire was poured on the allied line. When it ceased, the Imperial Cavalry, at headlong speed, charged the steady squares of the Guards, and the decimated ranks recoiled, but to hurl themselves anew on our bayonets.

The 3rd battalion of the First Guards was one of the regiments most exposed to this terrible onslaught. "It was upon these troops," says Siborne, "that fell the first bursts of the grand early attacks, and it was upon these troops also that the French gunners seldom neglected to pour their destructive missiles." Through all that terrific day the vast masses of gallant Frenchmen were broken against the iron sturdiness of the British squares, which stood like stony islands amid the lapping waves of a sea of fire. General Cooke, commanding the division of Guards, and Colonels D'Oyly and Stables, in command of battalions, retired wounded from the field, and Lord Saltoun, who had returned from Hougoumont, succeeded to the 3rd battalion. At length, as the day wore on, Bonaparte, seeing the oncoming of the Prussians, concentrated his furious cannonade mainly on the position held by the Guards preparatory to his grand attack, and but for the shelter of a hollow way, they must have been annihilated. At this time, Maitland, by the Duke's orders, formed his two battalions into line four deep, and scarcely was the change made, when 5,000 men of the Old Imperial Guard, led by Ney, were seen advancing at the pas de charge to the attack. Shouting Vive l' Empereur! They came steadily on, but, when they reached the crest, the Guards rose up like a wall and poured out a pitiless volley, the rear ranks passing with loaded muskets to the front. What matters it, says Lord Saltoun, whether Wellington cried "Up Guards and at 'em!" or no? He never heard the words only "Now Maitland, now's your time!" Thus was the iron shower set free. The Old Guard wavered and when at length the column reeled, shattered and broken, Saltoun cried out, "Now's the time, my boys!" and the Guards sprang forward, and drove the enemy over a hedge of dead and dying down the hill. In that conflict of giants, and at Quatre Bras, the First Guards lost 181 killed, including 7 officers, and had 853 wounded, making a total of 1,034. They had rendered glorious service, and earned undying fame. "Guards," exclaimed Wellington, "you shall be rewarded for this." and so it happened that, as a distinguished honour, they became "The First or Grenadier Regiment of Foot Guards." However, before the great glories of Waterloo the 1st Foot Grenadiers distinguished themselves in the Peninsular Campaign and the owner of this sword would likely have been there too! To quote Napoleon himself, “It was (the Spanish War) that overthrew me. All my disasters can be traced back to that fateful knot”. The Peninsula war was one of the longest, most arduous, and ultimately successful campaigns the British Army has ever fought. Throughout this time it was the 1st Guards’ discipline and esprit de corps that marked them out; it kept them fit to fight at all times. As Wellington gradually matched, then forced onto the defensive, and finally smashed French power in the Peninsula, the senior formation in his splendid army was always composed of the Guards. As such, Peninsula remains one of regiment’s proudest battle honours to this day. The retreat to Corunna was harrowing. In mid winter, across mountainous terrain, with little food or clothing, the trek lasted several weeks. Nonetheless, the two Battalions of Guards arrived at Corunna marching in step behind their corps of drums; they raised morale in Wellington’s army at the crucial moment and set a fine example to all ranks. Within days of arriving, the French attacked. With characteristic discipline and bravery, the 1st Guards repelled the French onslaught, paving the way for a decisive momentum shift in the war. By 1810, the 1st Guards found themselves besieged at Cadiz; separated from their Spanish allies, they had to fight two French divisions alone. Despite a 15 hour march and a heavily defended enemy, the composite brigade of Guards, commanded by Major General Dilkes, were victorious. The 1st Guards lost a third of their manpower as hors de combat but their success allowed Wellington’s forces to move north and drive the French enemy from Spain.
13 Dec 1813 Nive
/ July 25, 2014

When Napoleon’s army retreated into France, the British followed. British troops forced crossings on the rivers Bidossa, Nivelle and finally Nive, on 10 November 1813. The battle of Nive lasted 3 days, costing 1500 British lives. However the British, with the 1st Guards at the forefront, inflicted 3000 deaths on Soult’s French soldiers. These casualties and the delay caused to the enemy landed a telling blow to Napoleon’s ambitions in Europe. Indeed, Napoleon had abdicated and been banished to Elba within 6 months. This sword has obviously been used in combat, as one must expect, and has some hand to hand combat signs, plus light staining with various small pitting areas to the blade. Yet the scabbard leather is good for its age, and what a piece of history this sword is, and incredibly beautiful. This sword will not be effected by any imminent UK ivory ban due to the antique ivory compostion being less than 10%.

Code: 22468Price: 3250.00 GBP

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A Very Good 1796 Light Dragoon Officer's Sword Fully Deluxe Etched Blade
One of the Osborn-Le Marchant collaboration early 1796 originals. Used through the entire Napoleonic Wars period right up to the Battle of Waterloo. In good condition for age with wonderful fully etched deluxe etching to the blade, with royal crests, royal cyphers of King George IIIrd, stands of arms and a sabre wielding cavalry officer on horseback. The 1796 Light Dragoon sabre was designed by British cavalry regiment commander Col. John Le Marchant and Henry Osborn, a Birmingham cutler, in an inspired collaboration to create the ultimate cavalry sword. In fact it was so successful that during the Napoleonic Wars the French government petitioned and pleaded with the British to stop using such a vicious weapon, as it inflicted such awful injuries against their French cavalrymen. See in the gallery a painting of Le Marchant with his identical earliest Osborn made 1796 Light Dragoon sabre. A fabulous and sprauncy sabre used to devastating effect against Napoleon's cavalry. This is one of those earliest Osborn made sabres made in 1795-6. Le Marchant served as a brigade major during the disastrous Low Countries campaign of 1793-95, and for a time had command of his regiment as the most senior officer present. His practical experience in the field brought to Le Marchant's attention the many deficiencies of equipment and training the British cavalry suffered from. He was impressed by the Austrian cavalry who were operating alongside the British, and was particularly struck by the disparaging remark of an Austrian officer who thought that the British swordsmanship was "most entertaining" but reminded him of "someone chopping wood".

On his return to Britain he exerted himself to improve the equipment and combat training of the British cavalry. In 1795-6 he designed, in collaboration with the Birmingham sword cutler Henry Osborn, a new cavalry sabre, which was adopted for the light cavalry. In 1796 his treatise of instruction in mounted swordsmanship was adopted by the army as part of its official regulations (The Rules and Regulations of the Sword Exercise of the Cavalry). The sword exercise became quite celebrated, the elderly king, George III, became familiar with it, and country lanes abounded with small boys practising the cuts with sticks. Le Marchant toured Britain teaching cadres, drawn from both regular and yeomanry cavalry units, his system of swordsmanship; his methods were practical and painstaking and he was himself a superb mounted swordsman. Le Marchant was also to have gone to Ireland to teach his sword exercise there but was prevented from doing so, his brother-in-law, Lt. Peter Carey (16th Light Dragoons), undertook this duty in his stead. Le Marchant attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1797. His promotion was at the direct behest of the king (Le Marchant lacked the family influence and wealth which was normally necessary for advances in rank), with whom Le Marchant had developed a friendly relationship.

After his promotion he served as second-in-command of the 7th Light Dragoons which Henry, Lord Paget commanded. Paget, as the Earl of Uxbridge, was later to command the Anglo-allied cavalry at the Battle of Waterloo. Though a good relationship existed between himself and Paget, Le Marchant found it difficult to keep company with the immensely wealthy and fashionable peer. He therefore transferred to his old regiment the 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays), becoming the regimental commander

Code: 22467Price: 2650.00 GBP

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Rare & Beautiful, Early American Sword of the "Legion of the United States"
From the American Northwest Indian Wars era, of The Legion of the United States, with an very fine engraved panel of a Native American Feather War Bonnet, Bow, Arrows, War Drums and War Shield, within the blue and gilt blade's engraved pattern. The Horse's Head hilt sword is chiefly recognized as a stunning and most rare British design, in contrast to the Bald Eagle often found on American domestically made sword's hilt. While most surviving examples are artillery style, with shorter blades and gilt furniture (see page 106 of "Peterson's The American Sword" 1775-1945 for an example; in particular, note the bridle design on the horse head), this example shows the hallmarks of a cavalry or dragoon sabre, with a longer curved blade and the fine furniture that would become an American standard for cavalry. Measuring 36.5 inches overall, the curved single fuller blade is 31 inches long, with nitre blue fields reaching 2/3rds of the length, gold highlighted engraving with superb The blade decoration is chiefly of patriotic and martial themes, scrolls, cannon, drums, lances, and a panel with a Native American Indian War Weapons including a Feather War Bonnet, Bow, Arrows, War Drums and War Shield,plus, a scroll with the old American motto 'E Pluribus Unum' and an American Eagle with 15 stars on the American flag shield (suggesting either an artistic variation or a timeframe of 1792-1796). Warranted engraved on the right side near the languet. The hilt is finely engraved and finished brass, with a spiral-pattern rear quillion, deeply cut acanthus patterns on the languets, plain knuckle guard, a ribbed and polished carved bone grip, and a sharply detailed horse head pommel, with a well rendered bridle and the mane going down the back of the grip. With a black leather sheath, outfitted with gilt finished scabbard mounts and mounting rings.
Condition very good for age. The fine blade shows around 70% of the original nitre blue and gilt finish. The hilt is very good, with a well aged brass colour overall, and strong traces of deep, antique patina in the lower areas. A most fine example of a very scarce and American military sword. Used up until around the 1820's. The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory. It followed centuries of conflict over this territory, first among Native American tribes, and then with the added shifting alliances among the tribes and the European powers of France and Great Britain, and their colonials. Under the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain ceded to the U.S. "control" of what were known as the Ohio Country and the Illinois Country, which were occupied by numerous Native American peoples. Despite the treaty, the British kept forts there and continued policies that supported the Native Americans. With the encroachment of European settlers west of the Appalachians after the War, a Huron-led confederacy formed in 1785 to resist usurpation of Indian lands, declaring that lands north and west of the Ohio River were Indian territory. President George Washington directed the United States Army to enforce U.S. sovereignty over the territory. The U.S. Army, consisting mostly of untrained recruits and volunteer militiamen, suffered a series of major defeats, including the Harmar Campaign (1790) and St. Clair's Defeat (1791). About 1,000 soldiers, cavalry and militiamen were killed and the United States forces suffered many more casualties than their opponents. After St. Clair's disaster, Washington ordered Revolutionary War hero General "Mad" Anthony Wayne to organize and train a proper fighting force. Wayne took command of the new Legion of the United States late in 1792. After a methodical campaign up the Great Miami and Maumee river valleys in western Ohio Country, he led his men to a decisive victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near southwestern Lake Erie in 1794. Afterward he went on to establish Fort Wayne at the Miami capital of Kekionga, the symbol of U.S. sovereignty in the heart of Indian Country. The defeated tribes were forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. The Jay Treaty in the same year arranged for cessions of British Great Lakes outposts on the great U.S. territory. The Legion of the United States was a reorganization and extension of the Continental Army from 1792 to 1796 under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne composed of professionally trained soldiers, rather than state militias. The Legion was composed of four sub-legions each with its own infantry, cavalry, riflemen and artillery.

The Legion was formed as a policy instrument in the Northwest Indian War to avenge Gen. Arthur St. Clair's defeat on the Ohio frontier in 1791, and to assert U.S. sovereignty over Miami Indian country in northern Ohio and Indiana.
The Legion is best known for its victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in Aug. 1794.
In 1796, after the death of Anthony Wayne, the Legion was rechristened the Army of the United States. A most similar and rare example, but later, was in an esteemed and well renowned auction in the US in 2013 with an estimated sale price of $15,000 to $25,000

Code: 22466Price: 6450.00 GBP

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A Fine 'Blue and Gilt' 1796 Light Dragoon Officer's Combat Sabre
A beautiful and sprauncy sword . The blade bears it's original and stunning deluxe blue and gilt, and all its finest engraving of king George's cypher 'GR' and his royal crest, in fine detail, on the obverse the blue and gilt condition is 85%, on the reverse side around 70% . The exterior has a superb natural patination bright colour to the brass hilt and steel scabbard, it's complete original triple wire binding on the very good grip leather, and a few, small combat dents to the scabbard. This is truly a good example of the British 1796 pattern dragoon officer's sabre, used in the Napoleonic Wars, the Peninsular Campaign and the Battle of Waterloo. A mighty swash buckling sabre of the British Cavalry Light Dragoons. An amazingly effective sword of good stout quality. British Light dragoons were first raised in the 18th century. Initially they formed part of a cavalry regiment (scouting, reconnaissance etc.), but due to their successes in this role, (and also in charging and harassing the enemy), they soon acquired a reputation for courage and skill. In 1796 a new form of sabre was designed by a brave and serving officer, Le Marchant. Le Marchant commanded the cavalry squadron during the Flanders campaign against the French (1793-94). Taking notice of comments made to him by an Austrian Officer describing British Troopers swordplay as "reminiscent of a farmer chopping wood", he designed a new light cavalry sword to improve the British cavalryman's success. It was adopted by the Army in 1797 and was used for 20 years. Le Marchant was highly praised by many for his superb design and he further developed special training and exercise regimes. King George IIIrd was especially impressed and learnt them all by heart and encouraged their use throughout the cavalry corps. For a reward Le Marchant was promoted to Lt Colonel and given command of the 7th Light Dragoons. He soon realized that the course for educating the officers in his own regiment would spread no further in the Army without suitably trained instructors. His vision was to educate officers at a central military college and train them in the art of warfare. Despite many objections and prejudices by existing powerful members of the establishment, he gained the support of the Duke of York in establishing the Royal Military College, later to become the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst and the Army Staff College. In 1804 Le Marchant received the personal thanks of King George who said "The country is greatly indebted to you." In 1811, when nearing completion of this task, he was removed from his post as Lieutenant Governor of the College by Lord Wellington to command the heavy cavalry in the Peninsula. Appointed as Major General, he arrived in Lisbon fifteen days after leaving Portsmouth. On 22nd July 1812, Lord Wellington and the Allied Army of 48,500 men and 60 cannon were situated at Salamanca, Spain, against the French Commander Marshal Marmont. Wellington had ordered his baggage trains westwards to provide a covering force in the event of a full scale retreat, however Marmont mistakenly took the movement to be the retreat of the Army itself and ordered eight divisions of Infantry and a cavalry division westwards in an attempt to outflank the retreat. Wellington on seeing the enemy's army now spread out over four miles and therefore losing it's positional advantage, ordered the full attack. Le Marchant, at the head of one thousand British cavalry rode at a gallop towards the surprised French infantrymen, who had no time to form squares, and reduced their numbers greatly. The Heavy Brigade had received thorough training under Le Marchant and on reforming their lines charged repeatedly, until five battalions of the French left wing had been destroyed. After twenty minutes, in the final charge, Le Marchant fell from his horse having received a fatal musket shot and General Packenham who watched the attack later remarked " the fellow died sabre in hand…giving the most princely example".
Two days later, he was buried, in his military cloak, near an olive grove where he had fallen. Aged forty-six John Le Marchant was buried on the field of battle, however, a monument to him was erected in St Paul's Cathedral, London. The survival today of this sword is a testament to the now little known British hero, who, in many ways transformed the way that cavalry sword combat, and many military tactics were conducted for many decades after his valorous death. His fearsome sabre was, it is said, so feared by the French that protests were submitted to the British government stating that it was simply too gruesome for use in civilized warfare. A photo in the gallery of a Napoleonic British 10th Light Dragoon, who would typically might have used such a sword in dread combat.

Code: 22465Price: 2795.00 GBP

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