A 13th Century Iron Head Battle Mace 800 Years Old, On Later HaftPineapple shaped lobes on circular head with large mounting hole through which the haft slots [it is now fitted to a haft for display as its original rotted away centuries ago as usual]. The type were also used as a Flail Mace. Once the hollow iron head was filled with lead and a chain mounted hook placed within it, a chain could be added to the end of a similar wooden haft. This subsequent mace head weapon could thus then became a flail, often called a scorpion at the time. This iron mace head has flattened pyramidal protuberances, and is possibly English. Made for a mounted Knight to use as an armour and helmet Crusher in hand to hand mortal combat upon his war horse, or then dismounted. It would have been used up to the 15th to 16th century. On a Flail it had the name of a Scorpion in England or France, or sometimes a Battle-Whip. It was also wryly known as a 'Holy Water Sprinkler'. King John The Ist of Bohemia used exactly such a weapon, as he was blind, and the act of 'Flailing the Mace' meant lack of site was no huge disadvantage in close combat. Although blind he was a valiant and the bravest of the Warrior Kings, who perished at the Battle of Crecy against the English in 1346. On the day he was slain he instructed his Knights [both friends and companions] to lead him to the very centre of battle, so he may strike at least one blow against his enemies. His Knights tied their horses to his, so the King would not be separated from them in the press, and they rode together into the thick of battle, where King John managed to strike not one but at least four noble blows. The following day of the battle, the horses and the fallen knights were found all about the body of their most noble King, all still tied to his steed. During the Middle Ages metal armour such as mail protected against the blows of edged weapons. Solid metal maces and war hammers proved able to inflict damage on well armoured knights, as the force of a blow from a mace is great enough to cause damage without penetrating the armour. Though iron became increasingly common, copper and bronze were also used, especially in iron-deficient areas.
It is popularly believed that maces were employed by the clergy in warfare to avoid shedding blood (sine effusione sanguinis). The evidence for this is sparse and appears to derive almost entirely from the depiction of Bishop Odo of Bayeux wielding a club-like mace at the Battle of Hastings in the Bayeux Tapestry, the idea being that he did so to avoid either shedding blood or bearing the arms of war. One of the Crusades this type of mace may have been used was the Crusade of 1239, which was in territorial terms the most successful crusade since the First. Called by Pope Gregory IX, the Barons' Crusade broadly spanned from 1234-1241 and embodied the highest point of papal endeavour "to make crusading a universal Christian undertaking." Gregory called for a crusade in France, England, and Hungary with different degrees of success. Although the crusaders did not achieve any glorious military victories, they used diplomacy to successfully play the two warring factions of the Muslim Ayyubid dynasty (As-Salih Ismail in Damascus and As-Salih Ayyub in Egypt) against one another for even more concessions than Frederick II gained during the more well-known Sixth Crusade. For a few years, the Barons' Crusade returned the Kingdom of Jerusalem to its largest size since 1187.
This crusade to the Holy Land is sometimes discussed as two separate crusades: that of King Theobald I of Navarre, which began in 1239; and, the separate host of crusaders under the leadership of Richard of Cornwall, which arrived after Theobald departed in 1240. Additionally, the Barons' Crusade is often described in tandem with Baldwin of Courtenay's concurrent trip to Constantinople and capture of Tzurulum with a separate, smaller force of crusaders. This is because Gregory IX briefly attempted to redirect the target his new crusade from liberating the Holy Land from Muslims to protecting the Latin Empire of Constantinople from heretical Christians.
Despite relatively plentiful primary sources, scholarship until recently has been limited, due at least in part to the lack of major military engagements. Although Gregory IX went further than any other pope to create an ideal of Christian unity in the process of organizing the crusade, in practice the crusade's divided leadership did not reveal a unified Christian action or identity in response to taking a cross. Approx. 2.5 inch wide lobed iron head.
Code: 21534Price: 1250.00 GBP
A Pair Of Boxlock Pocket Percussion Pistols Circa 1835In very good order, with what appears to be very nice original finish. All steel furniture with engraved side plates, barrel tangs and trigger guards, slab sided walnut butts, oval name cartouches to sides, one engraved D.EGG. Durs Egg was one of England finest ever gunsmiths, but at this period his working life was coming to an end, and after his death, his relatives [John and George Frederick[son] ] carried on working in his name. Good turn-ff breech loading barrels with excellent proof markings. Both actions are very crisp indeed, but one pistol is reticent to engage past first cock. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables
Code: 21533Price: 1250.00 GBP
Rare Early 17th Century European Steel PikeMounted on a short haft for display. Many pikes of this type made their way to the America's and were used in the Revolutionary War, so there working life was quite considerable. We show a museum collection photograph of its surviving twin, that was used in the American Revolution and appears in George Neumann's Swords and Blades of the American Revolution.
One picture in the gallery are Swedish pikemen and musketeers as seen in the early 18th century. Another of French pikemen in battle in the mid 17th century.
In his February 1776 letter, Benjamin Franklin commented that pikes, or spears, would also make useful weapons. Franklin had experience of long standing with pikes. On July 4, 1775, he had been requested by the Pennsylvania Committee of safety “to procure a model of a Pike.” Two days later Franklin, who was a member of the Committee, appeared with his model of a pike. The Committee ordered that one be made “to the pattern produced by Doctor Franklin.” The pike itself was originally eighteen foot long, but soldiers quickly shortened this to sixteen foot to aid handling and maneuverability. Usually made of ash the pike was tipped with a steel spearhead. This was held on by langettes, two strips of steel running a few inches down the side of the pike. The langettes had a dual function; as well as securing the head, they protected it from being severed by the blow of a cavalry sword at the most vulnerable part of the pike, which would have made the weapon useless. In the English Civil War the pikeman provided the main defensive arm of the infantry. Closely ranked together and thrusting forward an impenetrable bristle of sharpened spearheads, a well trained and sturdy pike division could see off the most gallant of cavalry charges. Tip splitting for around 1 cm. Head approx 7 inches long incl. socket. 38.5 inches long on the display haft
Code: 21532Price: 695.00 GBP
A Fine and Rare Russian Empire Cossack Pistol 18th to 19th CenturyFine striped wood stock possibly elm. Overlaid with finely decorated traditional Russian metalwork. Shortened steel barrel and typical miquelet lock and ball trigger. During the French Revolutionary War the Don and Ural Cossacks were in the vanguard of the Austrian and Russian armies in 1799, their military prowess soon got the attention of Europe and the Russians under Marshal Suvorov proved equal to the French armies. Western Europe also felt the depredation of the Cossacks for the first time as they foraged for food, taking what they needed from the local population. In 1800 the Russian armies returned home.
The Cossacks next military campaign saw them thrust into one of the strangest schemes of Tsar Paul I, known to his subjects as the “Madman”.
After renouncing an alliance with Britain, Paul’s plan, hatched in conjunction with Napoleon, was to attack India and retake lost French holdings from the British. A force of 22,000 Don Cossacks was assembled under the command of Cossack Major-General Matvei Platov, General Basel Orlov led the expedition.
The expedition set off on 12 January 1801 in the depths of winter, their aim to march to Bukhara on the Silk Road, through Afghanistan to northern India then down the Ganges. Buy the time that had cleared the Steppe and entered the deserts of central Asia their supplies had already dwindled, but they were reprieved when a messenger caught them three weeks into the trek. Paul had been assassinated and the expedition was called off. A march to certain death had been avoided.
The new Tsar Alexander I was soon involved in war in Europe and in 1805 Cossacks were at the head of a Russian army heading for Austria to aid them against Napoleon. During the intervening years Alexander had increased the number of Cossacks in service to 50 Regiments totalling 50,000 men, over half from the Don. Cossack uniforms were standardised to some extent and some Cossacks served as infantry and horse artillery.
For the Russians the battle of Austerlitz was a disaster, but the Russian army would improve and its Generals would become more able to deal with Napoleon’s style of war. From 1805 to 1815 the Cossack would be involved in even Russian battle and campaign and would earn a fearsome reputation. After Napoleons defeat in Russia in 1812 it was the Cossack who harried the French retreat all the way back to Germany. After the 1813 German campaign, Cossacks left memories of terror imbedded in the minds of the German population that would be rekindled in 1945.
During the European revolutions of the 1830s and 1840s Cossacks were used extensively to crush uprisings. Tsar Nicolas I used them to crush the Poles in Russian Poland and Cossack regiments were sent into Hungary and Czechoslovakia to aid the Austrians against uprisings. The pistol has a very old crack through the butt [although perfectly sound] that likely occurred during it's working life. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables
Code: 21531Price: 1950.00 GBP
A Very Good Early 19th Century Cossack Kindjal Sword Signed BladeWith a very rare feature of quality, a very fine carved one piece carved horn grip with two steel rivets, [99% of them have two thin panel grips rivetted either side of the tang]. Very good two fullered blade off set from centre, with signed script cartouche. Original leather covered iron mounted scabbard. As worn by all the Cossacks, such as, for example the Kuban Cossacks (Russian Kubanskiye Kazaki). They were Cossacks who lived in the Kuban region of Russia. Although numerous Cossack groups came to inhabit the Western Northern Caucasus most of the Kuban Cossacks are descendants of the Black Sea Cossack Host, (originally the Zaporozhian Cossacks) and the Caucasus Line Cossack Host. The Kuban Cossack Host was the administrative and military unit from 1860-1918. The native land of the Cossacks is defined by a line of Russian/Ruthenian town-fortresses located on the border with the steppe and stretching from the middle Volga to Ryazan and Tula, then breaking abruptly to the south and extending to the Dnieper via Pereyaslavl. This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts.
These people, constantly facing the Tatar warriors on the steppe frontier, received the Turkic name Cossacks (Kazaks), which was then extended to other free people in northern Russia. The oldest reference in the annals mentions Cossacks of the Russian city of Ryazan serving the city in the battle against the Tatars in 1444. In the 16th century, the Cossacks (primarily those of Ryazan) were grouped in military and trading communities on the open steppe and started to migrate into the area of the Don (source Vasily Klyuchevsky, The course of the Russian History, vol.2).
Cossacks served as border guards and protectors of towns, forts, settlements and trading posts, performed policing functions on the frontiers and also came to represent an integral part of the Russian army. In the 16th century, to protect the borderland area from Tatar invasions, Cossacks carried out sentry and patrol duties, observing Crimean Tatars and nomads of the Nogai Horde in the steppe region.
The most popular weapons used by Cossack cavalrymen were usually sabres, or shashka, and long spears, but all Cossacks traditionally carried a Kindjal
Russian Cossacks played a key role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into Siberia (particularly by Yermak Timofeyevich), the Caucasus and Central Asia in the period from the 16th to 19th centuries. Cossacks also served as guides to most Russian expeditions formed by civil and military geographers and surveyors, traders and explorers. In 1648 the Russian Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov discovered a passage between North America and Asia. Cossack units played a role in many wars in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries (such as the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Russo-Persian Wars, and the annexation of Central Asia).
During Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, Cossacks were the Russian soldiers most feared by the French troops. Napoleon himself stated "Cossacks are the best light troops among all that exist. If I had them in my army, I would go through all the world with them." Cossacks also took part in the partisan war deep inside French-occupied Russian territory, attacking communications and supply lines. These attacks, carried out by Cossacks along with Russian light cavalry and other units, were one of the first developments of guerrilla warfare tactics and, to some extent, special operations as we know them today.
Western Europeans had had few contacts with Cossacks before the Allies occupied Paris in 1814. As the most exotic of the Russian troops seen in France, Cossacks drew a great deal of attention and notoriety for their alleged excesses during Napoleon's 1812 campaign.
Code: 21530Price: 995.00 GBP
A British WW2 Zuckerman Fire Guard Civil Defence HelmetMaker marked and dated original liner [re-affixed]. During World War 2, there were two organisations which very much a part of the Nation’s defence against fire, but who were not actually part of the Fire Service of the day.
Originally formed under the Air Raid Precautions (ARP) organisation, (later to become the Civil Defence organisation), were two groups established to add to the overall arrangements for reporting and dealing with small fires caused by air raids, especially those caused or likely to be caused by the hundreds of thousands of incendiary bombs that were dropped.
Many thousands of fires were prevented or outbreaks extinguished by members of the public, organized and coordinated by Local Authorities and working in liaison with ‘Air Raid Wardens’ and the Fire Service. As 1939 came, and the months passed, leading up to the outbreak of World War 2, it was identified that the Regular Fire Brigade and the Auxiliary Fire Service alone would not be able to cope with fires caused by sustained incendiary attack. It was though recognized that suitably trained and equipped householders could provide a valuable resource for dealing within the vicinity of where they lived and also as a means of providing early firefighting measures in commercial and occupational premises. These volunteers were recruited to operate in the vicinity of their own home and street and were formed into small teams of 3 to 5 persons and trained to tackle small fires caused by incendiary bombs or to extinguish the incendiary bomb itself using water supplied by a stirrup pump or the application of sand.
Code: 21529Price: 75.00 GBP
A Very Inexpensive 500 Year Old Chisa Katana with Original Edo Fine MountsA very nice and ancient samurai sword, that has very fine gold onlaid décor of samurai arrow flights over a fine nanako ground on the swords kashira with it's matching nanako ground fushi. This sword came with the samurai Yabusami bowman's sleeve [worn with armour] so it may indeed have been his katana. The blade has a very nice hamon but shows a fair amount of combat use, wear and a hairline so it is priced very inexpensively as a beautiful historical piece of original samurai weaponry. The Chisa Katana is a slightly shorter Katana highly suitable for two handed, or two sword combat, or, combat within enclosed areas such as castles or buildings. As such they were often the sword of choice for the personal Samurai guard of a Daimyo, and generally the only warriors permitted to be armed in his presence. Chisa katana, [Chiisagatana] or literally "short katana", are shoto mounted as katana. Of all the weapons that man has developed since caveman days, few evoke such fascination as the samurai sword of Japan. To many of us in the West, the movie image of the samurai in his fantastic armour, galloping into battle on his horse, his colourful personal flag, or sashimono, whipping in the wind on his back, has become the very symbol of Japan, the Empire of the Rising Sun. And, truly, to the samurai of real life, nothing embodied his warrior’s code of Bushido more than his sword, considered inseparable from his soul. Overall in saya 35 inches, blade tsuba to tip 21.5 inches
Code: 21528Price: 1950.00 GBP
A Rare, Japanese Uke-Zutsu, A Sashimono Holder Worn By A SamuraiWith clan mon. A wonderful quality old Edo period piece of samurai armour, probably 18th century. A long square sided lacquered wooden mount, with a gilt brass strengthening top piece, with which to carry the samurai's sashimono, his clan's banner flag, mounted on the samurai's armour cuirass rear backplate. A most rare original antique collectable that simply near impossible to find if one is needed. Sashimono poles were attached to the backs of the chest and back armour worn by samurai by special fittings. Sashimono were worn by basic foot combat samurai called ashigaru and the elite samurai who were both mounted on horses or fought on foot, and in special holders on the horses of some cavalry samurai. The banners, resembling small flags and bearing clan symbols, were most prominent during the Sengoku period—a long period of civil war in Japan from the middle 15th to early 17th century. The designs on sashimono were usually very simple geometric shapes, sometimes accompanied by Japanese characters providing the name of the leader or clan, the clan's mon, or a clan's slogan. Often, the background colour of the flag indicated which army unit the wearer belonged to, while different divisions in these armies emblazoned their own design or logo on it. However, the presence of the daimyo's mon was used more commonly than the design or logo of the unit, as battles could often get quite large and complicated; being able to recognize friend from foe at a glance is of the utmost importance in battle. Sometimes elite samurai, who were sufficiently famed or respected, had their own personal design or name featured on their sashimono as opposed to that of their division. These stylized designs contrast with the elaborate heraldic devices displayed by some European armies of the same period. We show an old samurai print in the gallery, a samurai is stood with his back showing and at the base of his armour back-plate is the sashimono holding his flag with an oni demon mask.
Code: 21527Price: 575.00 GBP
A Most Unusual Samurai Kabuto Maedate Fitting, Form of An Ancient WeightA Shinodari inscribed in old Chinese kanji, Jyu Ryo which means 10 x 37.8 grams [ie 378 grams] in western weight equivalent. Although this weighs 404 grams as it has the addition of a maedate fitting at the rear. Shinodari can come in many forms, faces of demons, circular discs rings, animal faces, insects, octopus, and even crustaceans such as lobster or crabs. Kabuto [samurai helmets] were often adorned with crests called datemono or tatemono; the four types of decorations were the maedate (frontal decoration), wakidate (side decorations), kashiradate (top decoration), and ushirodate (rear decoration). This particular one is certainly a new one to us. It may represent a samurai who was involved in measuring certain supplies by weight, or a weight to measure gold currency payments with a scale.
Code: 21526Price: 395.00 GBP
A Simply Stunning Koto Japanese Katana Circa 1550Around 470 to 500 year old blade. Fitted with wonderful original Edo period mounts, including its original Edo period lacquer saya in near pristine condition with multi patterned lacquer that has survived near 200 years. The complexity of the different patterns of lacquer on the saya shows the status of it's last owners during the 18th and 19th century. A saya of this quality would likely have takne over a year to make. Long impressive blade with a long o-kissaki tip. The tsuba is iron tetsu inlaid with kinko in the form of a willow tree. The fushi and menuki patterns are dragon based.The first use of katana as a word to describe a long sword that was different from a tachi occurs as early as the Kamakura Period (1185–1333). These references to "uchigatana" and "tsubagatana" seem to indicate a different style of sword, possibly a less costly sword for lower-ranking warriors. The Mongol invasions of Japan facilitated a change in the designs of Japanese swords. Thin tachi and chokuto-style blades were often unable to cut through the boiled leather armour of the Mongols, with the blades often chipping or breaking off. The evolution of the tachi into what would become the katana seems to have continued during the early Muromachi period (1337 to 1573). Starting around the year 1400, long swords signed with the katana-style mei were made. This was in response to samurai wearing their tachi in what is now called "katana style" (cutting edge up). Overall 40 inches long, blade tsuba to tip 28.25 inches long
Code: 21525Price: 6750.00 GBP
& maintained by Concept500