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Original Greek Socket Mount Arrowhead From the Time of Alexander The Great 334BC Acquired on A Grand Tour in 1820

Original Greek Socket Mount Arrowhead From the Time of Alexander The Great 334BC Acquired on A Grand Tour in 1820

Greek arrow head in delightful condition showing good and beautiful natural aged ancient patina. Acquired in the 1820's while on a Grand Tour of Northern France and the Ottoman Empire. From part four of our ancient arrow heads, spears, lead sling bullets, antiquities and rings from an 1820 Grand Tour Collection. Discovered around 200 years ago in the region of The Battle of the Granicus River during what was known at the time as 'The Grand Tour'. Fought in May 334 BC it was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes.

The battle took place on the road from Abydos to Dascylium (near modern-day Ergili, Turkey), at the crossing of the Granicus River. Where the ancient Greeks best perceived the need for archers was
when an expeditionary force came to them: if an ancient city knew a siege was facing them, what preparations would they make As Mitylene prepares to secede from the Athenian Empire (428) we see the city taking three preparations to undergo a siege: one was to buy
grain, second was to raise the height of the walls, and the third was to bring in archers from Thrace.
In a siege, the defenders always have the height advantage. They are throwing or shooting from the city walls, the offense is shooting from the ground. Mathematically, the height advantage goes with the square root of two. If, for instance, you are shooting from twice as high, your arrow goes 1.414 times as far. If you are on a battlement
50 feet high, and your opponent is shooting from five feet high, your arrow goes seven times farther than his. (This is purely mechanical, ignoring aerodynamics.)
The bow, among the Greeks, was the principal weapon for the city besieged. The bow being so effective in this situation explains why the first advance in ancient siege machinery was the movable tower. This
is the invention of Dionysius of Syracuse. You build it out of range, as high as the city walls, or even higher, armour the front with hides, move it up and give your archers a fair chance to clear the city walls.
Here, for once, is a situation where archers are fi ghting archers as the main event in ancient Greece. Though siege-towers were constructed out of range, their could always be over-achievers: Philip II, king of Macedon (359-336) and father of Alexander the Great, was inspecting
siege-works when he got his most famous wound an arrow from the city walls knocked his eye out.
Archers on city walls turned many a tide, as victorious besiegers routed a city’s land forces, and, in the excitement of pursuit, got too close to the city walls!

Code: 24225

70.00 GBP

Archived


An Amazing Piece of WW2 D-Day History, A Personal Letter from the Allied Navy Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Ramsey

An Amazing Piece of WW2 D-Day History, A Personal Letter from the Allied Navy Commander-in-Chief, Admiral Ramsey

Addressed to all the captains and masters of the merchant vessels about to receive embarkation orders, for the carrying our boys on D-Day over to Normandy, the super Top Secret, Operation Overlord.

An operation that for many thousands of allied soldiers, naval personnel and ships was a one way trip from whence they never returned. By no means an operation with any guarantee of success, just incredible calculations, using their expertise of naval and military logistics, and accompanied with supreme heroism, with the added best hopes and prayers of all involved.
Plus, probably involving the most important secret operation during the whole of WW2.

Code: 24223

125.00 GBP

Archived


A  Great Original WW2 US Paratroopers M3 in Original M6 Scabbard

A Great Original WW2 US Paratroopers M3 in Original M6 Scabbard

M3 knife Made by Imperial, with the M6 scabbard made by Moose Co.. Named to original owner underneath the scabbard maker stamp, but difficult to read , we think its a Private... Richard?. Now ranked by many alongside the rare Ist Pattern British FS Close Combat Knife for both desirability and value. Totally untouched since WW2. Certainly one of the most desirable fighting knives of WW2 for collectors of Allied combat knives and USA militaria, as the M3 was only made for around 1 year during the war, but this particular early type was manufactured for only two months, at the beginning of the 1943 production, and issued in the M6 all leather scabbard, by Moose, one of the rarer scabbard makers, with steel protection plate and coffin shaped seam rivets. The bottom scabbard protection plate was to ensure the blade tip didn't protrude from the scabbard on high impact landing by parachute . If one is very lucky to fine one of these rare and desirable US fighting knives, it will more usually be in the original WW2 late 1943 M8 scabbard, this little beauty is in the much rarer M6 scabbard made by Moose dated 1943, in all leather and steel. It certainly shows this combatant certainly saw considerable combat in his service in the Airborne division. The M3 fighting knife or M3 trench knife was an American military combat knife first issued in March 1943. Initially issued to US paratroopers in early 1943, these M3's are very collectible fighting knives. Especially if they are equipped with the initial production M6 leather scabbards. These sheaths alone by themselves, command a pretty hefty price when sold outright. Out of the years production they are only seen stamped with the 1943 date, for 60 days apparently. That in itself makes these early examples quite desirable.
This example is in good overall condition, showing quite a measure of wear and age as expected for a military knife, which doubled as a survival weapon in hand to hand combat under extreme conditions. The leather washers are nice and tight on the handle, The end of the pommel has been stamped with the flaming bomb proof mark, as proper for these knives. As for the blade, it is tight within the hilt of this knife, and exhibits normal wear, use, and age with hand sharpening. It is stamped U.S. M3 Imperial. This edged weapon is accompanied with the proper M6 leather scabbard marked; U.S. M6 Moose 1943. The scabbard is complete, good and intact. All of the metal reinforced sheath lip ribs, lateral coffin side rivets, and protector plate, are secure and in place. A very desirable early U.S. M3 fighting knife, with M6 leather scabbard.
The M3 was originally designated for issue to soldiers not otherwise equipped with a bayonet. However, it was particularly designed for use by elite or 'shock' forces in need of a close-combat knife such as airborne troops and Army Rangers, and these units received priority for the M3 at the start of production. As more M3 knives became available in 1943 and 1944, the knife was issued to other soldiers such as Army Air Corps crewmen and soldiers not otherwise equipped with a bayonet, including soldiers issued the M1 Carbine or submachine gun.
The M3 trench knife was discontinued in August 1944. After the M1 Carbine was modified to accept a knife-type bayonet, the M3's blade and handle design was incorporated on the new bayonet, officially designated the Bayonet, U.S. M4. The M6 Moose scabbard alone can these days command prices from 500 to 600 pounds. Sheath Contracted numbers

Milsco (Milwaukee Saddlery Co.) 140,494
Viner Bros Shoe Co. 66,457
L&C (Lyon & Coulson) 40,000
L.J. Barwood Co. 29,000
Moose River Shoe Co. 28,000
SBL (Service Boot & Leggins Inc.) 7,000
Total = 310,951

M6 Sheaths Shipped to M3 Knife Facilities

Aerial Cutlery Co., Marinette, Wisc. 20,000
H. Boker & Co. New York, NY Not Listed*
Camillus Cutlery Co., Camillus, NY 35,900
W.R. Case & Sons Cutlery Co. Bradford, PA 38,300
Imperial Knife Co. provenance, RI 38,300
Kinfolks Inc., Little Valley, NY 29,000
PAL Blade & Tool Co., Plattsburg, NY 20,000
Robeson Cutlery Co., Perry, NY 35,000
Utica Cutlery Co., Utica, NY 49,000
However, despite the appearance of so many being made, the amount of service arms and kit manufactured for the US military for WW2 means these figures are relatively small in the scheme of things, plus, the huge casualty rate and vagaries of combat meant likely 90% of these knives and scabbards, were lost in combat or destroyed by the end of 1945

Code: 23322

1295.00 GBP

Archived


SOLD An FS Type Fighting Knife With Knurled Brass Hilt and Stilletto Blade

SOLD An FS Type Fighting Knife With Knurled Brass Hilt and Stilletto Blade

Originally from a deceased WW2 veteran's estate., thence by descent. Possibly what is often known as the so-called American type FS knife, with a knurled brass grip, painted black, crossguard and narrower than usual stiletto type blade. This knife was also used in service by the grandson of the World War II veteran, who used it during his time in the Commandos. He served in the early 80s in the Falklands, and later in the desert.

The British Commando knife was first designed in 1940 by close combat legends William Fairbairn and Eric Sykes, who established and taught the combative training methods for wartime special forces such as the independent companies, SOE, Commandos, U.S Rangers and OSS.
Though known as the FS Fighting knife, this was not designed to be a utility fighting knife, but primarily designed to be used in silent killing actions such as sentry take-outs. The techniques of effective use were taught to various special forces at Highland training centres such as Lochailort Special Training Centre (STC) and Achnacarry, which was the Commando Basic Training Centre (CBTC) from 1942-1945.

The 1st pattern knife was originally manufactured exclusively by Wilkinson Sword Company, and was in great demand from first production. Original 1st pattern knives are highly collectable and sought after today with top quality examples selling for thousands.
The 2nd pattern was manufactured by many companies throughout the UK, and has often been regarded as the most effective pattern of Commando knife ever made. The diamond knurled brass grip provides excellent purchase in wet or dry climates. No scabbard.

Originally from a deceased WW2 veteran's estate, thence by descent.

The British Commando knife was first designed in 1940 by close combat legends William Fairbairn and Eric Sykes, who established and taught the combative training methods for wartime special forces such as the independent companies, SOE, Commandos, U.S Rangers and OSS.
Though known as the FS Fighting knife, this was not designed to be a regular knife, but primarily designed to be used in silent killing actions such as sentry take-outs. The techniques of effective use were taught to various special forces at Highland training centres such as Lochailort Special Training Centre (STC) and Achnacarry, which was the Commando Basic Training Centre (CBTC) from 1942-1945.

The 1st pattern knife was originally manufactured exclusively by Wilkinson Sword Company, and was in great demand from first production. Original 1st pattern knives are highly collectable and sought after today with top quality examples selling for thousands.
The 2nd pattern was manufactured by many companies throughout the UK, and has often been regarded as the most effective pattern of Commando knife ever made. The diamond knurled brass grip provides excellent purchase in wet or dry climates.

Outside of the regular official patterns many alternative types, based on the official patterns, but made subsequently have been made, this is most likely one of those examples and priced accordingly. No scabbard.

Code: 24216

300.00 GBP

Archived


Now Sold A Very Good Large, Barbed, Swallow Tail Original English & Welsh Arrowhead of Agincourt

Now Sold A Very Good Large, Barbed, Swallow Tail Original English & Welsh Arrowhead of Agincourt

Part of our wondrous, historical and original Egyptian antiquities and Viking and crusaders medeavil battlefield artefacts collection that has just arrived. Iron arrowhead of a tapering round-section socket, rectangular-section shaft, and swallowtail barbed head. Part of a small, exclusive, battlefield of agincourt recovered, original 1400's longbowman's swallow tail arrows Early 15th century, circa 1400. An absolute iconic original piece of British history. In battlefield recovered condition but very nice indeed. Approx. 4 inches long . Items such as this were oft acquired in the 18th century by British noblemen touring Northern France and Italy on their Grand Tour. Originally placed on display in the family 'cabinet of curiosities', within his country house upon his return home. A popular pastime in the 18th and 19th century, comprised of English ladies and gentlemen travelling for many months, or even years, througout classical Europe, acquiring antiquities and antiques for their private collections.
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. The battle took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) in the County of Saint-Pol, Artois, some 40 km south of Calais. Along with the battles of Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), it was one of the most important English triumphs in the conflict. England's victory at Agincourt against a numerically superior French army crippled France, and started a new period in the war during which the English began enjoying great military successes.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers perished due to disease and the English numbers dwindled, but as they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais they found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers forming up to 80 percent of Henry's army. The decimation of the French cavalry at their hands is regarded as an indicator of the decline of cavalry and the beginning of the dominance of ranged weapons on the battlefield.

Agincourt is one of england's most did celebrate vict'ries. The battleth is the centrepiece of the playeth henry v by shakespeare. Juliet bark'r in h'r booketh agincourt: the king, the campaign, the hurlyburly ( publish'd in 2005) argues the english and welsh w're outnumb'r'd "at least four to one and possibly as much as six to one". The lady suggests figures of about 6,000 f'r the english and 36,000 f'r the french, bas'd on the gesta henrici's figures of 5,000 arch'rs and 900 men-at-arms f'r the english, and jean de wavrin's statement "that the french w're six times m're num'rous than the english". The 2009 encyclopædia britannica uses the figures of about 6,000 f'r the english and 20,000 to 30,000 f'r the french. Parteth of an 'riginal medieval collection we has't just did acquire, of viking and early british relics of warfare from ancient hurlyburly sites recov'r'd up to 220 years ago.

10 cm long

Code: 24197

265.00 GBP

Archived


A Late 14th Century, Socketed, Quatrefoil Needle Bodkin Type, Armour Piercing Longbowman's Arrow Head, 'Grand Tour' Souvenir From Battle of Agincourt Site

A Late 14th Century, Socketed, Quatrefoil Needle Bodkin Type, Armour Piercing Longbowman's Arrow Head, 'Grand Tour' Souvenir From Battle of Agincourt Site

Part of our wondrous, historical and original Egyptian antiquities and Viking, crusaders, and medeavil battlefield artefacts collection that has just arrived. Acquired in the 1820's while on a Grand Tour Anglo French battle sites of Northern & Western France from Azincourt, in the Pas-de-Calais, to Poitiers in Aquitaine. Most English war arrows for Longbows would have some type of bodkin or “plate cutter” since their job was to penetrate armour (gambesons, hauberks, and plate). long and short bodkin, plate cutter, leaf, trefoil, crescent, and swallowtail broadheads. Broadheads were for un-armoured men and horse. The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy. They were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were heavily defeated; an English counter-attack captured King John, along with his youngest son, and much of the French nobility who were present.

The effect of the defeat on France was catastrophic, leaving Dauphin Charles to rule the country. Charles faced populist revolts across the kingdom in the wake of the battle, which had destroyed the prestige of the French nobility. The Edwardian phase of the war ended four years later in 1360, on favourable terms for England.

Poitiers was the second major English victory of the Hundred Years' War, coming a decade after the Battle of Crécy and about half a century before the Battle of Agincourt.The English army was led by Edward, the Black Prince, and composed primarily of English and Welsh troops, though there was a large contingent of Gascon and Breton soldiers with the army. Edward's army consisted of approximately 2,000 longbowmen, 3,000 men-at-arms, and a force of 1,000 Gascon infantry.

Like the earlier engagement at Crécy, the power of the English army lay in the longbow, a tall, thick self-bow made of yew. Longbows had demonstrated their effectiveness against massed infantry and cavalry in several battles, such as Falkirk in 1298, Halidon Hill in 1333, and Crécy in 1346. Poitiers was the second of three major English victories of the Hundred Years' War attributed to the longbow, though its effectiveness against armoured French knights and men-at-arms has been disputedGeoffrey the Baker wrote that the English archers under the Earl of Salisbury "made their arrows prevail over the [French] knights' armour",but the bowmen on the other flank, under Warwick, were initially ineffective against the mounted French men-at-arms who enjoyed the double protection of steel plate armour and large leather shields. Once Warwick's archers redeployed to a position where they could hit the unarmored sides and backs of the horses, however, they quickly routed the cavalry force opposing them. The archers were also unquestionably effective against common infantry, who could not afford plate armour.

The English army was an experienced force; many archers were veterans of the earlier Battle of Crécy, and two of the key commanders, Sir John Chandos, and Captal de Buch were both experienced soldiers. The English army's divisions were led by Edward, the Black Prince, the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Salisbury, Sir John Chandos and Jean III de Grailly, the Captal de Buch.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers perished due to disease and the English numbers dwindled, but as they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais they found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers forming up to 80 percent of Henry's army. The decimation of the French cavalry at their hands is regarded as an indicator of the decline of cavalry and the beginning of the dominance of ranged weapons on the battlefield.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories. The battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by Shakespeare. Juliet Barker in her book Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, the Battle ( published in 2005) argues the English and Welsh were outnumbered "at least four to one and possibly as much as six to one". She suggests figures of about 6,000 for the English and 36,000 for the French, based on the Gesta Henrici's figures of 5,000 archers and 900 men-at-arms for the English, and Jean de Wavrin's statement "that the French were six times more numerous than the English". The 2009 Encyclopædia Britannica uses the figures of about 6,000 for the English and 20,000 to 30,000 for the French. Part of an original medieval collection we have just acquired, of Viking and early British relics of warfare from ancient battle sites recovered up to 220 years ago.

It has been suggested that the bodkin came into its own as a means of penetrating armour, but research by the Royal Armouries has found no hardened bodkin points, though only two bodkin points were actually tested, not a statistically relevant number. Bodkins did, however, have greater ability to pierce mail armour than broadheads, and historical accounts do speak of bodkin arrows shot from close range piercing plate armour. Broadheads were made from steel, sometimes with hardened edges, but were more often used against lightly armoured men or horses than against an armoured adversary.

In a modern test, a direct hit from a steel bodkin point penetrated mail armour, although at point blank range. However, the test was conducted without a padded jack or gambeson, which was layered cloth armour worn under heavier armour for protection against projectiles, as it was known to stop even heavy arrows.

Armour of the medieval era was not completely proof against arrows until the specialised armour of the Italian city-state mercenary companies. Archery was thought not to be effective against plate armour in the Battle of Neville's Cross (1346), the Battle of Bergerac (1345), and the Battle of Poitiers (1356); such armour became available to European knights and men at arms of fairly modest means by the late 14th century, though never to all soldiers in any army.

Some recent tests have demonstrated that needle bodkins could penetrate all but heavy steel plate armour; one test used padded "jack" armour, coat of plates, iron and steel mail and steel plate. A needle bodkin penetrated every type, but may not have been able to inflict a lethal injury behind plate. As with all other tests, accuracy of these tests is called into question as the arrowheads were all high carbon steel and hardened, and the historical accuracy of the armour tested is unknown.The name comes from the Old English word bodkin or bodekin, a type of sharp, pointed dagger. Arrows of the long bodkin type were used by the Vikings and continued to be used throughout the Middle Ages. The bodkin point eventually fell out of use during the 16th and 17th centuries, as armour largely ceased to be worn and firearms took over from archery. 87mm long overall including tang

Code: 24198

265.00 GBP

Archived


NOW SOLD A Very Good and Scarce Antique Victorian to Edwardian Leather and Brass Fire Helmet probably by the Merryweather Helmet Co.

NOW SOLD A Very Good and Scarce Antique Victorian to Edwardian Leather and Brass Fire Helmet probably by the Merryweather Helmet Co.

the single piece leather skull with raised comb, brass trim to include rose bosses, later leather backed chin chain, leather liner.

The first records of a fire brigade of which we have any substantial history was ancient Roman, created by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born into a wealthy Roman family around the year 115 BC, and acquired an enormous fortune through (in the words of Plutarch) "fire and rapine." One of his most lucrative schemes took advantage of the fact that Rome had no fire department. Crassus filled this void by creating his own brigade?500 men strong?which rushed to burning buildings at the first cry of alarm. Upon arriving at the scene, however, the fire fighters did nothing while their employer bargained over the price of their services with the distressed property owner. If Crassus could not negotiate a satisfactory price, his men simply let the structure burn to the ground, after which he offered to purchase it for a fraction of its value. Emperor Nero took the basic idea from Crassus and then built on it to form the Vigiles in AD 60 to combat fires using bucket brigades and pumps, as well as poles, hooks and even ballistae to tear down buildings in advance of the flames. The Vigiles patrolled the streets of Rome to watch for fires and served as a police force. The later brigades consisted of hundreds of men, all ready for action. When there was a fire, the men would line up to the nearest water source and pass buckets hand in hand to the fire.

Rome suffered a number of serious fires, most notably the fire on 19 July AD 64 and eventually destroyed two thirds of Rome.
In the UK, the Great Fire of London in 1666 set in motion changes which laid the foundations for organised firefighting in the future. In the wake of the Great Fire, the City Council established the first fire insurance company, "The Fire Office", in 1667, which employed small teams of Thames watermen as firefighters and provided them with uniforms and arm badges showing the company to which they belonged.
However, the first organised municipal fire brigade in the world was established in Edinburgh, Scotland, when the Edinburgh Fire Engine Establishment was formed in 1824, led by James Braidwood. London followed in 1832 with the London Fire Engine Establishment.

James Braidwood was appointed the first Superintendent of the London Fire Engine Establishment in 1833 with headquarters in Watling Street and 17 Fire Stations crewed by 80 Firefighters spread throughout Central London and the City. In 1861 a Riverside Warehouse in Tooley Street, Southwark, caught Fire and destroyed adjoining Buildings for a Quarter of a Mile. Every Firefighter in London attended the Blaze including the Chief James Braidwood who was tragically killed at the scene. After that disastrous fire the Insurance Companies, who financed the London Fire Engine Establishment, appealed to the Government to take over responsibility for firefighting in London. Thus, the Metropolitan Fire Brigade was formed in 1866, at public expense, under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works.

Code: 24192

475.00 GBP

Archived


NOW SOLD A Fabulous Original Victorian Merryweather Pattern Fire Service Helmet, Probably One of the Very Best Available Anywhere Today

NOW SOLD A Fabulous Original Victorian Merryweather Pattern Fire Service Helmet, Probably One of the Very Best Available Anywhere Today

As our regulars know we try our absolute utmost to be highly selective with all the pieces and artefacts privately offered to us, doing everything in our power to choose the very best we can. This is one of those times, it is a simply exceptional example of an original British Victorian fire service helmet, with signs of use, naturally and with some light denting on the crest as usual, but it is simply part of its character, to demonstrate this is not a piece that never saw service but was used as it should, but cared for, and beautifully preserved for posterity.

The traditional two-piece skull has the embossed raised dragon comb, rose bosses, crossed axe and hoses helmet plate, leather backed chin chain, and original leather liner. overal in every way very good condition for age. The desirable standard pattern of Fire Service helmet used by all British county and city Fire Services in the Victorian era and just past WW1. With it's original chain curb strap, with just a few small surface dents. With all original liner. The first Roman fire brigade of which we have any substantial history was created by Marcus Licinius Crassus. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born into a wealthy Roman family around the year 115 BC, and acquired an enormous fortune through (in the words of Plutarch) "fire and rapine." One of his most lucrative schemes took advantage of the fact that Rome had no fire department. Crassus filled this void by creating his own brigade?500 men strong?which rushed to burning buildings at the first cry of alarm. Upon arriving at the scene, however, the fire fighters did nothing while their employer bargained over the price of their services with the distressed property owner. If Crassus could not negotiate a satisfactory price, his men simply let the structure burn to the ground, after which he offered to purchase it for a fraction of its value. Emperor Nero took the basic idea from Crassus and then built on it to form the Vigiles in AD 60 to combat fires using bucket brigades and pumps, as well as poles, hooks and even ballistae to tear down buildings in advance of the flames. The Vigiles patrolled the streets of Rome to watch for fires and served as a police force. The later brigades consisted of hundreds of men, all ready for action. When there was a fire, the men would line up to the nearest water source and pass buckets hand in hand to the fire.

Rome suffered a number of serious fires, most notably the fire on 19 July AD 64 and eventually destroyed two thirds of Rome.
In the UK, the Great Fire of London in 1666 set in motion changes which laid the foundations for organised firefighting in the future. In the wake of the Great Fire, the City Council established the first fire insurance company, "The Fire Office", in 1667, which employed small teams of Thames watermen as firefighters and provided them with uniforms and arm badges showing the company to which they belonged.
However, the first organised municipal fire brigade in the world was established in Edinburgh, Scotland, when the Edinburgh Fire Engine Establishment was formed in 1824, led by James Braidwood. London followed in 1832 with the London Fire Engine Establishment.

Code: 24191

1225.00 GBP

Archived


NOW SOLD A Simply Stunning WW2 Japanese officer's Gendaito Tradtionally Made Sword By Noshu Seki ju Kanemichi, Of Mino, Blade Dated, Made in the 2061st Year From The Foundation of the Empire of Japan

NOW SOLD A Simply Stunning WW2 Japanese officer's Gendaito Tradtionally Made Sword By Noshu Seki ju Kanemichi, Of Mino, Blade Dated, Made in the 2061st Year From The Foundation of the Empire of Japan

If one wanted one of the best examples of a traditional hand made WW2 Japanese officer's sword, signed by a good maker and in near pristine condition, look no further. This is in the top 2% of swords from that era we have seen in the past 20 years or so. Army smith, student of Zenjou Kaneyoshi, Koshima Katsumasa and Watanabe Kanenaga
It has an excellent 66.1 cm blade with two mekugi-ana, signed Noshu Seki ju Kanemichi saku and dated 2601 years from the foundation of the Empire (1943), it has a superb gonome-midare-hamon sanbonsugi style [3 cedar], with nashiji hada, and in excellent full military mounts. The fittings still have their original patination and gilt rims fully intact

Code: 24194

2750.00 GBP

Archived


A Beautiful 11th-12th Century Crusader’s Bronze Ring Engraved with the Christian Symbol of The Star of Bethleham

A Beautiful 11th-12th Century Crusader’s Bronze Ring Engraved with the Christian Symbol of The Star of Bethleham

From part four of our original ancient arrow heads, spears, lead sling bullets, antiquities and rings from an 1820 Grand Tour classical collection from Europe and the Middle East. A Superb Copper Bronze Medieval Ring from the Time of the earliest crusades and up to the time of King Richard 1st "The Lionheart"
engraved with the stylised design of the Star of Bethlehem, A beautiful early crusades period, Christian 11th- 12th Century, from the time of the early Crusades and of King Richard 1st. The sign of the 'Star of Bethleham' was used in ancient times as a Christian symbol for Crusader knights and pilgrims to the Holy Land.

King Richard was part of The Third Crusade (1189–1192) and it was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity (Angevin England, France and the Holy Roman Empire) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus. In super condition for age and a good wearable example.

Excellent condition and a good wearable size.

As with all our items it comes complete with our certificate of authenticity.

Code: 24170

365.00 GBP

Archived


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