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SOLD A Super and Intriguing WW2 German Military Wrist Watch DI H. Known as the Surveillance Officer Type

Supposedly only 8000 ever made. A Helvetia fine & rare original German, Third Reich issue, 1940's military surveillance officer’s wrist watch, A Helvertia DIH, type 2b with the Helvetia type 82c signed Helvetia and Swiss made, movement, Deutsches Heer officer issue, but classified as the rare DI H
This watch was issued by the German military during the early 1940's of World War II, Helvetia were a renowned Swiss maker producing fine and accurate watches for the Nazi officers.
The case of the watch is nickel plated with light to average wear. The cream dial is in good condition with mixed Roman and Arabic numerals, with sub seconds hand dial at 6, signed Helvetia. Working order. Post War brown leather military style strap. Appears to work just fine, but a service recommended for wear purposes.

The movement is a hand wound Swiss movement. The watch sits on a brown leather military style strap.
The great majority of the companies were Swiss .
with Helvetia being one of the best, making superb timepieces. Stamped either side of the figure serial number, is the official Wehrmacht classification DI.H, with 3199 stamped above. However DH was the regular stamp classification but the much rarer type have DI H. This has always been the subject of debate amongst some collectors, due to some limited belief that they were assembled from parts, likely due to their rarity, however all the contentious examples have the Helvetia 800c movement, however this timepiece, alongside all the 'deemed correct' examples have the has the correct Helvetia 82c movement and the important 3199 stamp on the back case cover. In a seminal work “A Concise Guide to Military Timepieces 1880 -1990” by Z.M. Wesolowski IT specifies that the DI H marks are “Deutsches Heer property marks found on non-waterproof wristwatches with sweeping centre seconds used for surveillance purposes, the I in DIH may stand for Inteligenz or Italienisch [for surveillance officers and spies etc.].The Italienisch mark may have been for a contract for the specialist Italians serving with the Afrika Korps in the desert campaign under Rommel. See in the gallery three photographs of the standard watch type worn by officers during World War II in the German Heer/SS, one being Herbert Otto Gille, seen here as SS-Gruppenführer and commander of 5. SS Panzer Division Wiking. Helvetia DIH watches are relatively rare, it seems that only around 8000 of all types were ever completed

Code: 23604

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A Very Good German WW2 Iron Cross Ist Class Breast Badge Bravery Award

In very good condition, and the front and rear is completely untouched and shows 70 odd years of natural aging.The German Iron Cross medal for heroism came in two grades, Second Class and First Class. This example the Iron Cross First Class could only be awarded for an act of outstanding bravery and also to one who had previously received the Iron Cross Second Class. Hence, the First Class was more restricted and more highly prized. When the Iron Cross First Class was awarded, the Iron Cross Second Class was signified, when worn on the uniform, with a small ribbon attached across the tunic lapel attached to a button. Even when in combat the iron Cross first class was worn in the soldiers tunic on the left breast. Adolf Hitler was awarded his identical type of 1st Class Iron Cross in WW1, dated 1914, and always wore it throughout WW2 with pride. Next to the Victoria Cross, it is the most famous medal in the world. The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other conspicuous military contributions in a battlefield environment. In order to receive the Iron Cross 1st Class the men of the Heer and Waffen SS would have had to perform three to four further acts of courage from the one that earned them the Iron Cross 2nd Class; The Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine had the following criteria; the award was regularly awarded to U-boat Commanders upon sinking 50,000 tons and to Luftwaffe pilots when they achieved six or seven confirmed
kills; Of course these were only guidelines, and a single act of great importance or a long steady career could earn the individual the Cross. The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of two different methods: When in formal dress, the entire cross was worn mounted alone or as part of a medal bar. For everyday wear, only the ribbon was worn from the second hole in the tunic button.
The Iron Cross is a black four-pointed cross with white trim, with the arms widening toward the ends, similar to a cross pattee. It was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century.

Initially the Iron Cross was worn with the blank side out. This did not change until 1838 when the sprig facing could be presented.

Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it was annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued. For example, an Iron Cross from the First World War bears the year "1914", while the same decoration from the Second World War is annotated "1939". The reverse of the 1870, 1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year "1813" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration also has the initials "FW" for King Frederick William III, while the next two have a "W" for the respective kaisers, Wilhelm I and Wilhelm II. The final version shows a swastika. A cross was the symbol of the Teutonic Knights (a heraldic cross pattee), and the cross design (but not the specific decoration) has been the symbol of Germany's armed forces (now the Bundeswehr) since 1871.

Code: 23366

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SOLD A Beautiful Emperor of Ethiopia's Imperial Guard Cavalry Officer's Long Sword

Just returned from or workshop, after 40 hours of artisan bespoke cleaning and preservation. It is in such a fine state now it is likely one could never find a better surviving example. The sword is based on a British 1796 light cavalry pattern sword, but the hilt has a lion's head pommel, and a very distinctive grip that is either highly polished wood or gutta-percha. This is the pattern of sword that first saw service under Emperor Menelik II, who defeated an attempted Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1896. Emperor Haillie selassie then ordered future contracts from the British such as Wilkinson sword co. A scarce Ethiopian Emperor's imperial guard cavalry sword. The Kebur Zebagya, or Honour Guard, also known as the Imperial Guard. Initially there were 3,000 men responsible to the head of state only. Numbers gradually increased. Selassie started it in 1917 when he was Regent for Empress Zewditu. He was made Emperor in 1930.

The Imperial Guard fought heroically during the second Italian war of 1935 -1941, and lost many men. The forces of Abyssinia became guerrilla after Selassie went into exile. He re-instated the Guard upon his return - he was exiled from 1936 to 1941. late 19th Century., Wide, curved, single-and false-edged blade, with fuller, nickel-plated, richly engraved with floral motifs and inscriptions in Amharic, and St George and the Dragon, and florid etching and engravings on the opposite side. European military type, metal and brass hilt, with guard and langets, anatomical grip and long cap shaped as lion's head. Original leather scabbard. The ricasso has a typical British star proof mark, stamped ZS under one langet, and on the opposite ricasso under the tang is an imperial crown. Selassie was one of the most famous leaders in Ethiopian history. As the emperor, he was exiled during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia due to the status he held. Selassie would go onto return to Ethiopia and help in taking back control of the country from Italy. On April 2, 1930, Ras Tafari Makonnen became Emperor Haile Selassie. Selassie was the last reigning monarch of Ethiopia’s Solomonic Dynasty. The Solomonic Dynasty traces its ancient ancestry to King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba, biblical figures who may have lived during the 10th century BCE.

Ethiopia is often acknowledged as the only nation in Africa never to have been colonized, and Selassie emerged as a powerful international figure as other African countries sought independence in the 20th century. His long reign and enduring policies (such as support for African unity and the abolition of slavery in Ethiopia) earned him a privileged position at international summits. For instance, Selassie was one of the highest-ranking diplomats at the funeral of U.S. President John Kennedy.

Selassie’s greatest impact may have been on the island of Jamaica. Jamaican religious leaders adopted a version of his birth name, Tafari (Ras was an official title) and Rastafarians regard Selassie as a god. (Selassie himself remained a Christian throughout his life.). Photo in the gallery of Emperor Hallie Selassie in full dress uniform.

Code: 23591

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A Superb WW1 Royal Artillery Officer's Sword With Deluxe Etched Blade, in FS Scabbard

These swords were actually used in the trenches by the officers as can be seen in the photo in the gallery of two officers [one Horse Artillery the other Infantry] walking in France to the front, both with their swords within their Sam Browne frogs. Near mint blade with original frost etching, nickel three bar hilt and wire bound sharkskin grip. Fully etched blade with King George V th cypher and wings and lightning flashes of the Royal Artillery. Overall perfect for current service use [with two small issues attended to.] On 1 July 1899, the Royal Artillery was divided into three groups: the Royal Horse Artillery of 21 batteries and the Royal Field Artillery of 95 batteries comprised one group, while the coastal defence, mountain, siege and heavy batteries were split off into another group named the Royal Garrison Artillery of 91 companies. The third group continued to be titled simply Royal Artillery, and was responsible for ammunition storage and supply. Which branch a gunner belonged to was indicated by metal shoulder titles (R.A., R.F.A., R.H.A., or R.G.A.). The RFA and RHA also dressed as mounted men, whereas the RGA dressed like foot soldiers. In 1920 the rank of Bombardier was instituted in the Royal Artillery. The three sections effectively functioned as separate corps. This arrangement lasted until 1924, when the three amalgamated once more to became one regiment. In 1938, RA Brigades were renamed Regiments. During the Second World War there were over 1 million men serving in 960 gunner regiments. In 1947 the Riding House Troop RHA was renamed The King's Troop RHA and, in 1951, the title of the regiment's colonel-in-chief became Captain General. When The Queen first visited the Troop after her accession, it was expected that it would become "The Queen's Troop", but Her Majesty announced that in honour of her father's decision it would remain "The King's Troop".

The Royal Horse Artillery, which has always had separate traditions, uniforms and insignia, still retains a separate identity within the regiment.

Before the Second World War, Royal Artillery recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 4 inches (1.63 m) tall. Men in mechanised units had to be at least 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 m) tall. They initially enlisted for six years with the colours and a further six years with the reserve or four years and eight years. They trained at the Royal Artillery Depot in Woolwich. The FS leather covered wooden scabbard is very good except the bottom leather chape is lacking, a replacement shouldn't be too technical to find or make. **The hilt has some odd staining to the bars but should polish nicely.

Code: 23587

545.00 GBP

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A Simply Beautiful Japanese Aikuchi Tanto of Incredibly Elegant Form

A Japanese dagger all shakudo mounted aikuchi. Signed Kunitoshi with 2 mekugi ana, likely Meiji period, blade chisselled with dragon horimono on the obverse and with a ken horimono to the reverse; gilt shakudo tsuka and saya engraved with Tokugawa mons and with gold nishiji decoration overall. Shakudo is a billon of gold and copper (typically 4-10% gold, 96-90% copper) which can be treated to form an indigo/black patina resembling lacquer. Unpatinated shakudo Visually resembles bronze; the dark color is induced by applying and heating rokusho, a special patination formula.

Shakudo was historically used in Japan to construct or decorate katana fittings such as tsuba, menuki, and kozuka; as well as other small ornaments. When it was introduced to the West in the mid-19th century, it was thought to be previously unknown outside Asia, but recent studies have suggested close similarities to certain decorative alloys used in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. This tanto is mounted fully in all shakudo, both fittings, tsuka and saya, [hilt and scabbard]. The blade with look wonderful when it is repolished. Overall 25cms long, blade 12.2cms

Code: 22527

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A Very Fine Late 16th century Italian Morion Cabasset Helmet An Elizabethan Helmet of the Spanish Armada Period Circa 1570

An armour 'pear stalk' cabasset helmet from the era of the unsuccessful Spanish 'Armada', the attempted invasion of England, during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth Ist. Used continually through the English Civil War and into the reign of King James. A fine one piece high peak cabasset helmet made in the mid to late 16th century. Wonderfully hand forged with hammer marks and with patches of delamination. This super helmet is nicely constructed with good edgework and lovely quality throughout, and it is a fine period piece in excellent condition for age. This form of helmet that survive today in England were often captured from the Spanish Armada armouries, and some even recovered from the sea bed alongside Spanish cannon, beneath the stricken Spanish ships, and subsequently issued to the London Trayned Bands. The History of the Cittie of London Trayned Bandes
(1572-1647)
In the absence of a regular army, the trained bands, founded in 1572 as part of Elizabeth I's efforts to modernise the militia, were the only permanent military units in England. While the county bands were often poorly organised, ineptly officered and infrequently trained, the London bands were not, although enthusiasm did wax and wane considerably over the years of their existence (1572 - 1647).
The Regiments
Before the Civil War there were four London regiments - the North, South, East and West - comprising a total of 6,000 men in 20 companies. In 1642, as relations between king & parliament worsened, the bands were re-organised into 40 companies of 8,000 men in six regiments named the Red, Blue, Green, White, Orange and Yellow after the colour of their regimental flags, or "trophies", as they were known to London militiamen. The following year, after the King's unsuccessful attempt to seize The Capital, three more trained band and five "auxiliary" regiments were raised bringing the whole force to around 20,000 men. This large army, controlled by the mayor and the city aldermen, held London for parliament throughout the first Civil War (1642 - 1646) and contributed brigades of foot to parliament's field armies. The establishment and subsequent rise of the New Model Army after 1645 greatly reduced the significance of the bands and they gradually melted away. Today, only the Honourable Artillery Company, a ceremonial unit of ex-soldiers, remains as a legacy of the glory days of London citizen?s solders. Weapons & Equipment
Weapons and equipment conformed to statute laid down by the Privy Council. The following description is from the 1638 issue of "Directions for Musters".
The Pikeman
"Must be armed with a pike seventeen feet long, head and all; the diameter of the staff to be one inch 3/4, the head to be well steeled, 8 inches long, broad, strong and sword-pointed; the cheeks 2 foot long, well riveted; the butt end bound with a ring of iron, a gorget, back, breast, tassets and head piece, a good sword of 3 foot long, cutting and stiff pointed with girdle and hangers".
The Musketeer
"Must be armed with a good musket, the barrel four foot long, the bore of 12 bullets in the pound rowling in, a rest, bandolier, head-piece, a good sword, girdle and hangers".
One other picture is a period engraving of an Elizabethan soldier with his pear stalk cabasset, another picture of The Battle of Gravelines, August 8, 1588, which is of the defeat of the Spanish Armada by Sir Francis Drake, Queen Elizabeth's Admiral. Pictures shown for information only. Some text is quoted from an article by Mr Steve Rabbitts on London trayned bands

Code: 23255

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A Simply Fabulous US Civil War Large Calibre Revolver

An M1854 Lefauchaeux of Paris Revolver in stunning condition. Superbly crisp and tight action. In many ways the large bore martial pinfire revolver, based upon the patents of Casimir and Eugene Lefaucheux was one of the most modern and advanced handguns to see use on the battlefield during the American Civil War. Thousands of these pinfire revolvers were imported for use by US troops, and at least a few hundred saw service with Confederate troops as well. Although US government purchases only record about 13,000 M-1854 Lefaucheux patent pin-fire revolvers as being officially purchased (along with over 2.2 million cartridges), surviving examples and regimental records indicate that far more than that were imported. The primary importer of M-1854 revolvers was George Schuyler who purchased 10,000 Lefaucheux revolvers for the US government. Most of Schuyler’s purchases appear to have been made directly from Lefaucheux in Paris. Other importers who provided pin fire revolvers to the US government included Herman Boker, Schuyler, Hartley & Graham, George Raphael (who provided the Raphael revolvers to the US), Alexis Godillot of Paris (who provided the Perrin revolvers to the US) and even Tiffany & Company. US cavalry units that received significant numbers of pin fire revolvers included the 5th IL, 2nd & 5th KS, 6th KY, 8th MO, 1st WI and the 9th MO State Militia Cavalry. The Springfield Research Service serial number books list the serial numbers for 69 Lefaucheux revolvers that were in the possession of Company B of the 9th Missouri State Militia Cavalry during 1863. Confederate units under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest had at least a few hundred of these revolvers in their possession in late 1864. A May 25, 1864 Ordnance Report from Meridian, Mississippi by Forrest showed his 1st Division in possession of 190 French Pistols and his 3rd Division in possession of 160. It is almost certain that these French Pistols were Lefaucheux revolvers. Additionally, in 1864 the Selma Arsenal was offering Lefaucheux revolvers for sale to Confederate officers at a price of $25 each, including 12 cartridges. In August of 1864 Selma listed the following pistol ammunition in their inventory “For French Pistol (LeFaucheux) “ 52,800 rounds”. This is very clear indication that CS Ordnance Department was actively trying to keep ammunition available for a decent number of Lefaucheux revolvers in the field. Using the theory that the CS Ordnance Department was trying to maintain an inventory of between 20 and 50 rounds per pistol, this would indicate they were trying to keep between 1,056 and 2,640 pistols supplied from Selma alone.

The wonderful M-1854 Lefaucheux patent revolver offered here a classic example of a Lefaucheux produced revolver in exceptional condition. The right side of the frame shows the standard LF prefixed serial number, in this case 2xxx. It is the typical 12mm, single action pistol with a round barrel that typified the martial pinfire of the Civil War. The top of the barrel is marked in a single line in the typical Lefaucheux fashion: E. Lefaucheux BRts S.G.D.G A Paris. The front the frame is marked with the usual two line oval Lefaucheux patent cartouche. The interior surface of the loading gate and trigger are marked with the assembly marks 25 M. The gun retains about some original blue on the cylinder which has mixed with a lovely plum brown patina. The barrel has a smooth plum brown patina. The gun is 100% correct and original with no replacement parts or repairs. It retains the original front site (the rear site is in the hammer nose), the lanyard ring in the butt, the original ejector rod and the original loading gate catch - all parts that are often missing and/or broken when these pistols are encountered. The original 2-piece grips are in about FINE condition and retain about 70% of their original varnish. The grips are solid and free of any breaks, cracks or repairs. The grips show only the normal light bumps, dings and handling marks from actual use. The pistol has an excellent action that works crisply and correctly, with fine timing and lock up. The loading gate opens and closes freely and locks closed, as it should. The ejector rod functions smoothly as well.

Simply put this is a really nice example of the classic military pin fire pistol pattern that saw substantial use during the American Civil War. The gun is in really outstanding condition when compared to the condition these pistols are normally encountered in. This is a pistol with nothing at all to apologise for and is absolutely 100% original and correct. This pistol is typical of the Civil War used martial pin fire revolvers and is just as likely to have seen US as CS use during the war. What else could one ask for in such an attractive Civil War era martial pin fire revolver”

Code: 23320

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SOLD A Simply Fabulous, And Rare, 20 Shot, Double Barrel, Revolver Circa 1860

This large 1860's revolver is so incredible all those that see it are nothing short of astonished!. This is such an extraordinary rarity many gun collectors have never even seen one in their collecting lifetime. A double barrelled 20 shot 7mm double action pinfire revolver, c 1860, round over and under barrels 150mm (6”); Liege proved; the cylinder having two rows, each of 10 chambers, the hammer having two noses which strike an upper and lower chamber alternately; with folding trigger, chequered walnut grips, lanyard ring.It was the holy grail of revolver for officer's in the American Civil War that enabled the user to have incredible firepower, effectively the firepower of more than three men at once armed with their regular 5 or 6 shot revolver. This 20-Round revolver was one of the notable attempts at designing a revolver that offered the operator a pistol with more than a standard cartridge cylinder housing five- or six-rounds of ammunition. This handgun instead made use of a 20-shot rotating cylinder set up in two rows of ammunition with the inner cartridge chambers spaced closer together than the outer chambers. In addition to this unique two-layer cylinder design, the Lefaucheux 20-Round also featured two barrels, these arranged in an "over-and-under" format. The hammer was large to work the two barrels though only one barrel at a time could be fired with each successive action. In this design arrangement, the operator was supplied a distinct advantage for the revolver featured a hefty ammunition capacity.

Externally, the pistol sports a noticeably tall profile, necessitated by the large cylinder. The cylinder was set in an "open-frame" design, meaning that there was no bridge present across the top of the cylinder itself - it being left exposed. The hammer was a large single piece and set high about the rear of the body, just ahead and above the pistol grip. The grip itself was a curved affair with grip pattern to promote a better hold. The trigger was a slim lever extending down and curved outward to accept the proper trigger finger angle. A front sight was positioned just aft of the upper barrel muzzle.
The 20-Round made use of a "pinfire" cartridge developed by Casimir Lefaucheux in 1823 from Paris. The then-innovative design called for the hammer to strike the pin from above, to which the pin would ignite the internal primer and powder, thus discharging the projectile ball. This action, in effect, closed the breech. Pinfire revolvers went on to see extensive use throughout Europe until being replaced by more centerfire-types. The Lefaucheux's cartridge became the first efficient self-contained cartridge.
This attempt at creating a multi-shot revolver meant several late-19th Century pistol firms were forever trying to increase the firepower of the revolver of the day. This particular and incredibly rare form of 20-shot revolver has been documented and well known to have been used in the American Civil War, mostly on the side of the Southern states. Good condition with excellent fully functioning and crisp action. As with all our antique guns no license is required as they are all unrestricted antique collectables

Code: 23324

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SOLD. A Superb Napoleonic Mameluke Sabre

The sword favoured by both French and British Hussars in the Napoleonic Wars. In fact they became so similar many are difficult to distinguish as either for French or English use. A 19th century mameluke hilted sword, with a plain, curved, flat very brighly polished steel plate blade of 33" long, brass crossguard with bud quillons and langets, horn pistol shaped grips with engraved brass central band and prominent studs to pommel, in its crinkle leather covered scabbard with border engraved long brass locket and chape and 2 rings on central bands engraved with floral motif en suite with crossguard. Mameluke swords were adopted by officers of light cavalry regiments in the first decade of the 19th century, used as much for combat and were employed on active campaign as full dress. They are prominent in images of officers of the Hussars painted by Robert Dighton in 1807. As officially regulated dress or levée swords they first appear in 1822 for lancer regiments. Later, other light cavalry and some heavy cavalry regiments also adopted similar patterns. Though broadly similar in form, each regiment's swords had individual variations in the decoration of both blade and hilt. The current regulation sword for generals, the 1831 Pattern, is a Mameluke-style sword, as were various Army Band swords Napoleon considered cavalry to be a deciding factor in the victory of a battle, and was determined to have his cavalry to be professional and elite.

As Napoleon's empire and influence expanded, he acquired foreign cavalry into his army. The Polish Hussars were already famous across Europe for their skill and bravery when Napoleon enlisted them.

The Battle of Somosierra (November 30, 1808) had Napoleon facing Benito de San Juan's four lines of Spanish artillery positioned defensively in the Somosierra Pass Sierra de Guadarrama mountains. Napoleon noticed that the front Spanish artillery was exposed due to being too close to Napoleon's lines, and so ordered the Hussars to attack the cannons despite being bombarded by grapeshot. The Hussars achieved their goal of capturing the front line of Spanish artillery; however the commander of the Hussars, Jan Kozietulski, continued the charge to successfully capture the three other lines of artillery. The Spanish army, now without artillery support, retreated. Napoleon declared the Hussars 'My bravest cavalry!' in response. Benito de San Juan's army was so distraught by this defeat that many Spaniards mutinied and eventually executed Benito on 7 January 1809. Overall inches long approx 40 inches long.

Code: 23318

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SOLD A Large German Third Reich Cast Aluminium Alloy Wall Mounted Eagle Reichsadler, Stamped APAG. The 1930’s Saw the Reichsadler and the Partieadler in Great Profusion Within the Entire Reichs, Upon Trains Buildings & Government Offices

More than any other permanent adornment from 1935 to 1945 the eagle and swastika symbol is instantly recognisable throughout the world, and no architectural symbol has ever come closer to being so representative of a political force, that changed the world. A Third Reich pattern cast aluminium alloy wall or train eagle, wingspan 35" (89cm), the back marked “.GAL..Mg.si APAG” Manufacturer, with 3 threaded mounting bolt holes.GAL-Mg-Si (Gal=Galvanized Aluminum, Mg=Magnesium, Si=Silicon). APAG was a German manufacturer of alloy fittings, that also made bunker periscope fixing mounts, amongst other alloy castings, for the Wehrmacht, it was in the 1930’s and 40s that saw Apag thrive. Clear detailing, with typical powdery alloy surface aging. During Nazi rule, a stylised eagle combined with the Nazi swastika was made the national emblem (Hoheitszeichen) by order of Adolf Hitler in 1935. Despite its medieval origin, the term "Reichsadler" in common English understanding is mostly associated with this specific Nazi-era version. The Nazi Party had used a very similar symbol for itself, called the Parteiadler ("Party's eagle"). These two insignia can be distinguished as the Reichsadler looks to its right shoulder whereas the Parteiadler looks to its left shoulder. The Third Reich, more commonly known as Nazi Germany [a name coined by Winston Churchill as an abbreviation of Hitler's 'National Socialism'] that described Hitler's regime from January 30 1933 to May 8 1945.

The regime began when Adolf Hitler rose to power and began his perilous rule as head of state (chancellor) on January 30 1933.

In a bid to champion the common man as Hitler often claimed, the Nazi Socialist revolution sought to establish a Volksgemeinschaft, a pure German peoples race. Wall eagles have been made of many materials such as iron, alloy, aluminium, concrete, stone, bronze etc,

Code: 23335

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