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SOLD A Superb New Land Pattern Light Dragoon Pistol For a British Trooper

EIC Lion stamped lock with British proofs and ordnance marks, dated 1812. A jolly nice and tight excellent condition, just returned from being fully cleaned and serviced. With fine walnut stock, steel barrel and brass furniture and mounts, steel lock with EIC & Lion stamp, with 'Crown 2' inspector's stamp, and British ordnance barrel inspection mark Crown [over] 9. With the 1778 Crowned C.P. & Crowned V. proof stamps of the London Gunmaker's Co. in Whitechapel. This pistol was manufactured in 1812, and its lock was inspected and stamped by Richard Duce, who was the official lock inspector from 1797 to 1818, and his mark was the Crown [over] 2. One of the 4,500 pairs contracted for the EIC Light Dragoons [East India Co.] but sold to the British Ordnance for the Light Dragoons and Hussars in the Napoleonic Wars. The East India Co. was an English and latterly a British company with an Army that was led by British officer's with a mixture of British and Indian other ranks. It had a most effective and powerful Navy and it's Army rivalled that of any in the world. It had many famous historical figures amongst it's members including, General Robert Clive [aka Clive of India] Lord Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, and a past EIC Governor was Elihu Yale who was a British merchant and philanthropist, Governor of the East India Company settlement in Bengal, at Calcutta and Chennai and a benefactor of the Collegiate School of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College [of Connecticut USA] in his honour. The East India Company was, an anomaly without a parallel in the history of the world. It originated from subscriptions, trifling in amount, of a few private individuals. It gradually became a commercial body with gigantic resources, and by the force of unforeseen circumstances assumed the form of a sovereign power.

The company's encounters with foreign competitors eventually required it to assemble its own military and administrative departments, thereby becoming an imperial power in its own right, though the British government began to reign it in by the late eighteenth century. Before Parliament created a government-controlled policy-making body with the Regulating Act of 1773 and the India Act eleven years later, shareholders' meetings made decisions about Britain's de facto colonies in the East. The Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion. The great Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Midnapore district in Odisha to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal. This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally.

With the gradual weakening of the Marathas in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars, the British also secured the Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, Broach, some districts of Gujarat, the fort of Ahmmadnagar, province of Cuttack (which included Mughalbandi/the coastal part of Odisha, Garjat/the princely states of Odisha, Balasore Port, parts of Midnapore district of West Bengal), Bombay (Mumbai) and the surrounding areas, leading to a formal end of the Maratha empire and firm establishment of the British East India Company in India.

Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, the rulers of the Kingdom of Mysore, offered much resistance to the British forces. Having sided with the French during the Revolutionary war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the death of Tipu Sultan.
The British government took away the Company's monopoly in 1813, and after 1834 it worked as the government's agency until the 1857 India Mutiny when the Colonial Office took full control. The East India Company went out of existence in 1873.

During its heyday, the East India Company not only established trade through Asia and the Middle East but also effectively became of the ruler of territories vastly larger than the United Kingdom itself. In addition, it also created, rather than conquered, colonies. Singapore, for example, was an island with very few Malay inhabitants in 1819 when Sir Stamford Raffles purchased it for the Company from their ruler, the Sultan of Johor, and created what eventually became one of the world's greatest trans-shipment ports. In flintlock and made at the Tower of London and used by the front-line British Cavalry regiments during the Peninsular War, War of 1812, and the Hundred Days War, culminating at Waterloo. Introduced in the 1796 and in production by 1802, the New land Cavalry Pistol provided one model of pistol for all of Britain's light cavalry and horse artillery. Another new element was the swivel ramrod which greatly improved the process of loading the pistol on horseback.
The service of British Cavalry regiments, particularly the Light Dragoons, proved essential in the mastery of the Indian Subcontinent. The Duke of Wellington, then Arthur Wellesley, was primarily recognised for his military genius by his battles in India. Of particular note was the Battle of Assaye in 1803 where the 6000 British faced a Mahratta Army of at least 40,000. During the engagement the 19th Light Dragoons saved the 74th Regiment by charging the enemy guns 'like a torrent that had burst its banks'. Pistols firing and sabre slashing, the 19th broke the enemy's position and the day was won. 19th Light Dragoons gained "Assaye" as a battle honour, and the nickname "Terrors of the East". The 19th Light Dragoons eventually served in North America during the War of 1812 and so did this form of pistol. Cavalry was the 'shock' arm, with lance and sabre the principal hand weapons. The division between 'heavy' and light was very marked during Wellington's time: 'heavy' cavalry were huge men on big horses, 'light' cavalry were more agile troopers on smaller mounts who could harass as well as shock.

During the Napoleonic Wars, French cavalry was unexcelled. Later as casualties and the passage of years took their toll, Napoleon found it difficult to maintain the same high standards of cavalry performance. At the same time, the British and their allies steadily improved on their cavalry, mainly by devoting more attention to its organization and training as well as by copying many of the French tactics, organisation and methods. During the Peninsular War, Wellington paid little heed to the employment of cavalry in operations, using it mainly for covering retreats and chasing routed French forces. But by the time of Waterloo it was the English cavalry that smashed the final attack of Napoleon's Old Guard.

Code: 23258

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SOLD A Super and Rare Late Georgian Period British General's & Staff Officer's Bullion Sword Knot

In delightful condition for age, the perfect accompaniment to a fine 19th century Georgian sword, or as a wonderful collector's piece in its own right. These fancy bullion and silk sword knots are so difficult to fine in this condition, and with its fabulous gilt finish patina. An absolute gem of a sword knot. The sword knot began existence as a simple cord attached to the hilt of the sword of a mounted soldier. The knot is in fact, a loop usually made out of leather, or gold and silver bullion over silk for officers.
Before engagement with the enemy the soldier or officer wraps the loop around his wrist to prevent the loss of his sword, which can happen either in the heat of the battle or if he needs to relax his group in order to steady his mount.
In more recent years the sword knot has gradually evolved to become a more ornamental and decorative piece of uniform regalia. The design of it has also changed such that it now features a double strap which is also attached to the sword guard and wrapped around the hilt when not attached to the wrist.
Since the late 19th century, there are two main types of sword knots: full dress and active service. The sword knot used for active service features a plain buff leather strap, while the full dress versions are usually more elaborate creations made from gold and silver cord with decorative tassels for that final added flourish.

Code: 23451

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A Good Mid Edo Period Antique Samurai Katana

Nicely graduating curvature to the blade, very attractive tsukaito over traditional rayskin and gold embellished flowering menuki. Carved patinated fushigashira of nice quality. Iron Edo tsuba with feint traces of the rays of Buddha pattern chisseling. A samurai was recognised by his carrying the feared daisho, the big sword [daito], little sword [shoto] of the samurai warrior. These were the battle katana, the big sword, and the wakizashi, the little sword. The name katana derives from two old Japanese written characters or symbols: kata, meaning side, and na, or edge. Thus a katana is a single-edged sword that has had few rivals in the annals of war, either in the East or the West. Because the sword was the main battle weapon of Japan's knightly man-at-arms (although spears and bows were also carried), an entire martial art grew up around learning how to use it. This was kenjutsu, the art of sword fighting, or kendo in its modern, non-warlike incarnation. The importance of studying kenjutsu and the other martial arts such as kyujutsu, the art of the bow, was so critical to the samurai, a very real matter of life or death, that Miyamoto Musashi, most renowned of all swordsmen, warned in his classic The Book of Five Rings: The science of martial arts for warriors requires construction of various weapons and understanding the properties of the weapons. A member of a warrior family who does not learn to use weapons and understand the specific advantages of each weapon would seem to be somewhat uncultivated. This fine samurai sword, like all true and original samurai swords, would have been the prize possession of every samurai that owned it. It would most likely have cost more than his home, and would certainly have been more important.
This is just one reason why fine Japanese sword steel, even of this tremendous age, is in such good state of preservation. When a katana such as this has been, for its entire existence, so highly revered, treasured and appreciated, it will have been cared for most sensitively and treated with the utmost respect during its entire life. Leather covered wooden saya. In many regards it will have represented the only thing that stood between its samurai owner, of which there may have been several, during this swords history in the Edo period, and his ultimate downfall in a combat situation.
cert of authenticity
A Good Mid Edo Period Antique Samurai Katana
Nicely graduating curvature to the blade, very attractive tsukaito over traditional rayskin and gold embellished flowering menuki. Carved with a vine leaf design, in patinated copper, a matching pair of fushigashira of nice quality. Silvered and gilt botanical menuki under the gold silk wrap, over traditional white giant rayskin on the tsuka [hilt]. Double copper habaki [blade collar]. Blade with suguha hamon and blade in nice condition showing natural aging. Typical long nakago of the period with good natural aging and traces of file marks , single mekugiana. Iron round plate Edo period tsuba with feint traces of the rays of Buddha pattern chisseling. A samurai was recognised by his carrying the feared daisho, the big sword daito, little sword shoto of the samurai warrior. These were the battle katana, the big sword, and the wakizashi, the little sword. The name katana derives from two old Japanese written characters or symbols: kata, meaning side, and na, or edge. Thus a katana is a single-edged sword that has had few rivals in the annals of war, either in the East or the West. Because the sword was the main battle weapon of Japan's knightly man-at-arms (although spears and bows were also carried), an entire martial art grew up around learning how to use it. This was kenjutsu, the art of sword fighting, or kendo in its modern, non-warlike incarnation. The importance of studying kenjutsu and the other martial arts such as kyujutsu, the art of the bow, was so critical to the samurai, a very real matter of life or death, that Miyamoto Musashi, most renowned of all swordsmen, warned in his classic The Book of Five Rings: The science of martial arts for warriors requires construction of various weapons and understanding the properties of the weapons. A member of a warrior family who does not learn to use weapons and understand the specific advantages of each weapon would seem to be somewhat uncultivated. This attractive samurai sword, like all true and original samurai swords, would have been the prize possession of every samurai that owned it. It would most likely have cost more than his home, and would certainly have been more important. This is just one reason why fine Japanese sword steel, even of this tremendous age, is in such good state of preservation. When a katana such as this has been, for its entire existence, so highly revered, treasured and appreciated, it will have been cared for most sensitively and treated with the utmost respect during its entire life. Leather combat covered wooden saya. In many regards it will have represented the only thing that stood between its samurai owner, of which there may have been several, during this swords history in the Edo period, and his ultimate downfall in a combat situation.

Code: 23454

2650.00 GBP

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SOLD A Very Handsome Shinshinto Era Samurai Katana

SOLD How most attractive original antique samurai sword, around 240 years old, with silk tsukaito binding, beautiful Edo period copper fittings engraved and a plain Edo period circular iron plate tsuba. This is a super example of an absolute bargain in the world samurai weaponry it has just arrived today and is a very nice antique sword for relative little expenditure. Blade has some tiny areas of age pitting throughout, but that is reflected in its very low price, we are rarely are able to offer original antique katana samurai swords at this kind of price level. It has a traditional wooden saya, Mumei tang

Code: 23445

1995.00 GBP

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Sold...A Very Fine 1810 Elite Napoleonic Wars, French Imperial Cuirassier Sword

One of the nicest we have seen in almost 20 years. Blade inspector marked by Lobstein and Bick plus one other, the blade also engraved on the back strap Manufacture Imperial du Klingenthal Sept 1810. In 1810 the date, as well as its arsenal of manufacture, was added for the very first time, henceforth they were to be dated on the blade by its year of manufacture. Superb original leather grip, and a very fine double fullered blade with stunning old patina. Good steel combat scabbard without denting. Excellent hilt with further inspector's stamps, Renown throughout the world of historic sword collectors as probably the biggest and most impressive cavalry sword ever designed. This would have seen service in the Elite Cuirassiers of Napoleon's great heavy cavalry regiments of the Grande Armee. The French Invasion of Russia ( Campagne de Russie) began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army. Napoleon hoped to compel Tsar Alexander I of Russia to cease trading with British merchants through proxies in an effort to pressure the United Kingdom to sue for peace. The official political aim of the campaign was to liberate Poland from the threat of Russia. Napoleon named the campaign the Second Polish War to curry favour with the Poles and provide a political pretence for his actions. The Grande Armée was a very large force, numbering nearly half a million men from several different nations. Through a series of long marches Napoleon pushed the army rapidly through Western Russia in an attempt to bring the Russian army to battle, winning a number of minor engagements and a major battle at Smolensk in August. Napoleon hoped the battle would mean an end of the march into Russia, but the Russian army slipped away from the engagement and continued to retreat into Russia, while leaving Smolensk to burn. Plans Napoleon had made to quarter at Smolensk were abandoned, and he pressed his army on after the Russians. The battles continued, but once the winter set in Napoleon's army was facing unsurmountable odds that left it effectively shattered beyond repair. Napoleon fled, it is said, dressed as a woman, and the army left to it's sad and miserable fate. Only around 27,000 were able to return after a mere six months of the Russian campaign. The campaign was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. The reputation of Napoleon was severely shaken, and French hegemony in Europe was dramatically weakened. The Grande Armée, made up of French and allied invasion forces, was reduced to a fraction of its initial strength. These events triggered a major shift in European politics. France's ally Prussia, soon followed by Austria, broke their alliance with France and switched camps. This triggered the War of the Sixth Coalition. The Cuirassiers Heavy Cavalry Regiments used the largest men in France, recruited to serve in the greatest and noblest cavalry France has ever had. They fought with distinction at their last great conflict at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, and most of the Cuirassiers swords in England very likely came from that field of conflict, after the battle, as trophies of war. Every warrior that has ever entered service for his country sought trophies. The Mycenae from a fallen Trojan, the Roman from a fallen Gaul, the GI from a fallen Japanese, the tradition stretches back thousands of years, and will continue as long as man serves his country in battle. In the 1st century AD the Roman Poet Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis [Juvenal]
wrote; "Man thirsts more for glory than virtue. The armour of an enemy, his broken helmet, the flag ripped from a conquered trireme, are treasures valued beyond all human riches. It is to obtain these tokens of glory that Generals, be they Roman, Greek or barbarian, brave a thousand perils
and endure a thousand exertions". A truly magnificent Napoleonic sword in superb condition for it's age.
The largest sword of it's kind that was ever made or used by the world's greatest cavalry regiments. Made at Klingenthal and Versailles.The cuirassiers were the greatest of all France's cavalry, allowing only the strongest men of over 6 feet in height into it's ranks. The French Cuirassiers were at their very peak in 1815, and never again regained the wonder and glory that they truly deserved at that time. To face a regiment of, say, 600 charging steeds bearing down upon you mounted with armoured giants, brandishing the mightiest of swords that could pierce the strongest breast armour, much have been, quite simply, terrifying. The brass basket guard on this sword is first class, the grip is superb all original leather with some grip wire remaining and has superb colour and fabulous patination, the blade is double fullered and absolutely as crisp as one could hope for. Made in the Napoleonic War period. Possibly a souvenir of Waterloo brought back after the battle.
Just a basic few of the battles this would have been used at in 1812 and beyond 1812: Borodino and Moscow, Ostrowno, and Winkowo 1813: Reichenbach and Dresden, Leipzig and Hanau
1814: La Rothiere, Rosnay, Champaubert, Vauchamps, Athies, La Fere-Champenoise and Paris
1815: Quatre-Bras and Waterloo. . Overall 46 inches long, blade 37.25 inches

Code: 23444

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A Koto 16th Century Ancestral Bladed Japanese 'Crew-Gunto' Officer's Sword of WW2

SOLD...Its super blade was made around 500 years ago, and thus this sword would have seen service by up to 30 samurai within it's service lifetime. Then, by its very last owner it was mounted and taken to war by likely the eldest son, a pilot, from a family with samurai ancestry. The Japanese fighter plane often had a metal container within the cockpit that would hold the pilots katana. Although the pilot was never expected to need his sword while on a mission, he was expected to die with it if his plane should crash or explode, and if his plane was to crash land, and he survived, he would have a sword to maintain his life in potential enemy territory. The blade has a stunning hamon and in beautiful polish. A short Crew Gunto mounted sword, with an early Koto period ancestral chisa katana blade in full polish showing a simply fabulous and active hamon. The whole sword is simply in super condition for it's age. The blade is set with its silver covered Edo period habaki, all it's traditional WW2 Showa brass fittings, a fine 1936 pattern pierced gunto tsuba, with its black lacquer wooden saya. It is known as a short crew-gunto as carried by a Japanese fighter pilot from 1936 until 1945. The saya would once have had a leather protective cover. The shorter military mounted sword worn during WW2 for those that fought, during combat, in a small and restricted area that was most unsuitable for the standard long sword, such as the Zero fighter plane. Photo in the gallery shows a Kamikaze pilot after being issued his Kaiten in a ritual ceremony, please note he is holding while seated his 'Aircrew' short gunto sword, he was pilot captain of Special-Attack Party Hakkō-Second Party Ichiu-Unit, that he carried in his plane when on combat missions. Another two photos of Japanese pilots with their crew gunto swords, for information only photos not included. Collectors frequently seek Shin Gunto swords that have an original handed down 'Ancestral' blade, as it is said less than one in a hundred Japanese swords, surrendered in WW2, were swords such as this. This form of sword was often the perogative of an eldest born son, that went to fight for his Emperor in WW2, with his ancestor's blade set in traditional military mounts. This sword is an exceptional piece of WW2 Japanese historical interest, very early ancestral swords are scarce in themselves, outnumbered at least 10 to 1 by gendaito swords, but the short 'crew gunto' are much rarer than even that, in our experience, so this makes it potentially, in theory, well over a 100 times scarcer than a regular Japanese WW2 officers sword in our opinion. Apart from information on it's 1945 source, sadly, we do not know the name of it's WW2 officer owner that document was lost. Overall 31.5 inches long in black saya, Blade 19.5 inches from tsuba to tip [

Code: 23442

2750.00 GBP

Archived


Signet Ring in Copper Bronze of the Holy Land Defenders, Part of a Matched Pair of Knight's and Mamluk's Rings

Both 12th century original medieval, but sold separately.12th century Saladin period Mamluk ring with Arabic inscription. Acquired together with a ring from the time of King Richard Ist and the early Crusades to take Jerusalem. The defenders of the Holy Land from the Crusader knights. From the Ayyubid dynasty and the Mamluks. The mamluk was an "owned slave", distinguished from the ghulam, or household slave. After thorough training in various fields such as martial arts, court etiquette and Islamic sciences, these slaves were freed. However, they were still expected to remain loyal to their master and serve his household. Mamluks had formed a part of the state or military apparatus in Syria and Egypt since at least the 9th century, rising to become governing dynasties of Egypt and the Levant during the Tulunid and Ikhshidid periods. Mamluk regiments constituted the backbone of Egypt's military under Ayyubid rule in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, beginning with Sultan Saladin. The Ayyubid dynasty founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt, ruling over the Levant, Hijaz, Nubia and parts of the Maghreb. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimid Caliphate in 1171. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Zengid ruler Nur al-Din and established himself as the first custodian of the two holy mosques.1213 For the next decade, the Ayyubids launched conquests throughout the region and by 1183, their domains encompassed Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia. Most of the Crusader states including the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell to Saladin after his victory at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. However, the Crusaders regained control of Palestine's coastline in the 1190s. King Richard was part of The Third Crusade (1189–1192) and it was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity (Angevin England, France and the Holy Roman Empire) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.

Code: 23304

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A Superb Copper Bronze Medieval Ring From the Time of King Richard 1st "The Lionheart"

Part of a Matched Pair of original 12th century medieval Knight's and Mamluk's Rings But sold separately. A Pentagram engraved signet ring, 12th Century, from the time of the early Crusades of King Richard. Acquired together with a ring from the time of Saladin and his Mamluks. The defenders of the Holy Land from the Crusader knights. The pentagram was used in ancient times as a Christian symbol for the five wounds of Christ. In the medieval period it was recognised as the Seal of Solomon Solomon, the third king of Israel, in the 10th century BC, was said to have the mark of the pentagram on his ring, which he received from the archangel Michael. The pentagram seal on this ring was said to give Solomon power over demons. The pentagram or pentangle occurs in the 14th-century English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in which the symbol decorates the shield of the hero, Gawain. In the middle ages the pentangle was the most common sign to ward off demonic powers. Long before the narrator of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight placed the pentangle on the shield of “that peerless prince,” it was an object of importance, and has enjoyed a place in the philosophical and theological forums of many cultures. The earliest found depiction of the pentangle, located on a piece of pottery found in the ruins of the ancient city of Ur, dates back to around 900 BCE, placing it well within the early Babylonian period (Stone, 135). The Pythagoreans where fascinated by its mathematical and geometrical implications and spent much of the 3rd 4th and 5th centuries BCE trying to unlock its mysteries. In fact, most all Greek geometry, mathematics, and architecture are based on the perfect harmony found in the pentangle. The neo-Platonists and the Gnostics could not resist the call of the pentangle, and tied many of their studies and mysteries to this eminent symbol. However, the pentangle gained its most prominent state in the Middle Ages when Christianly and Islam adopted this symbol as a major part of their religions, both using it as a symbol of harmony, virtue, and idealism (Hulbert, 722). King Richard was part of The Third Crusade (1189–1192) and it was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity (Angevin England, France and the Holy Roman Empire) to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus. In super condition for age and a good wearable example

Code: 23303

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A Most Fine & Beautiful 18th Century French Officer's Naval Flintlock Blunderbuss Pistol, Pistolet de Marine

All brass furniture including bird's head butt cap, and brass lock plate, brass two stage cannon barrel. Fine walnut stock. Vessels designed by French engineer Jacques-Noel Sane started being constructed during the American Revolutionary War. He created what were to be, in effect, the ultimate designs of wind-powered fighting ship, with standard frigates carrying 18-pounder guns, and standard ships of the line of 64, 74, 80 and 118 guns ; his 74-gun ship of the line became the backbone of the French and British navies. The largest units, the 118-guns, were said to be "as manoeuvrable as a frigate" (the Ocean class is a typical example). The French Revolution, in eliminating numerous officers of noble lineage (among them, Charles d'Estaing), all but crippled the French Navy.

The National Convention dissolved the Fleet Gunners Corps, which effectively put a halt to the training in gunnery, abysmally degrading the rate of fire and precision of batteries; in addition, the French doctrine was to fire at the rigging of enemy ships as to render them helpless; this doctrine could prove effective with highly trained crews, but was impractical with poorly trained gunners, and resulted in a number of instances where French ships did not manage to score a single hit on dangerously exposed British ships (as happened with the fight of the Ca Ira, at the beginning of the Battle of Trafalgar). By contrast, the Royal Navy doctrine was to fire at the ship's hull in order to kill and maim the crew, and gradually degrade the firepower of their opponents, also a much easier target for much better trained gunners.
Efforts to make it into a powerful force under Napoleon were dashed by the death of Latouche Treville in 1804, and the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, where the British all but annihilated a combined Franco-Spanish fleet. This disaster guaranteed British naval domination during the Napoleonic Wars.
From then on, the French Navy was limited to frigate actions and privateers like Robert Surcouf. This started the French tendency to prefer large numbers of smaller but powerful and swift units, rather than large capital ships. It was in a conversation we had with the late lamented Howard Blackmore [formerly of the Tower of London armoury] that the consensus of agreement between us was that there are so few of these French officier's de marine blunderbuss pistols surviving, due to the simple fact so few French ships survived the ravages of the Royal Navy in the Napoleonic wars, due to being either sunk or captured. The pistol is 10.75 inches long overall.

Code: 23294

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A Very Good Large, Barbed, Original English - Welsh Arrowhead Of Agincourt

Overall in good condition for age, surface russetted and the haft has a delightful twist beneath the point. 15th century, circa 1400. An absolute iconic original piece of British history. In battlefield recovered condition but very nice indeed. 3.5 inches long x 1.5 inches wide. Items such as this were oft acquired in the 18th century by British noblemen touring Northern France and Italy on their Grand Tour. Originally placed on display in the family 'cabinet of curiosities', within his country house upon his return home. A popular pastime in the 18th and 19th century, comprised of English ladies and gentlemen traveling for many months, or even years, througout classical Europe, acquiring antiquities and antiques for their private collections.
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. The battle took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) in the County of Saint-Pol, Artois, some 40 km south of Calais. Along with the battles of Crécy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), it was one of the most important English triumphs in the conflict. England's victory at Agincourt against a numerically superior French army crippled France, and started a new period in the war during which the English began enjoying great military successes.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers perished due to disease and the English numbers dwindled, but as they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais they found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers forming up to 80 percent of Henry's army. The decimation of the French cavalry at their hands is regarded as an indicator of the decline of cavalry and the beginning of the dominance of ranged weapons on the battlefield.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories. The battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by Shakespeare. Juliet Barker in her book Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, the Battle ( published in 2005) argues the English and Welsh were outnumbered "at least four to one and possibly as much as six to one". She suggests figures of about 6,000 for the English and 36,000 for the French, based on the Gesta Henrici's figures of 5,000 archers and 900 men-at-arms for the English, and Jean de Wavrin's statement "that the French were six times more numerous than the English". The 2009 Encyclopædia Britannica uses the figures of about 6,000 for the English and 20,000 to 30,000 for the French. Part of an original medieval collection we have just acquired, of Viking and early British relics of warfare from ancient battle sites recovered up to 220 years ago.

Code: 23438

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