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SOLD. A 14th Century, Longbowman's Arrow Head, 'Grand Tour' Souvenir From Battle of Poitier Site

Acquired in the 1820's while on a Grand Tour Anglo French battle sites of Northern & Western France from Azincourt, in the Pas-de-Calais, to Poitiers in Aquitaine. Most English war arrows for Longbows would have some type of bodkin or “plate cutter” since their job was to penetrate armour (gambesons, hauberks, and plate). long and short bodkin, plate cutter, leaf, trefoil, crescent, and swallowtail broadheads. Broadheads were for un-armoured men and horse. The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh, Breton and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy. They were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were heavily defeated; an English counter-attack captured King John, along with his youngest son, and much of the French nobility who were present.

The effect of the defeat on France was catastrophic, leaving Dauphin Charles to rule the country. Charles faced populist revolts across the kingdom in the wake of the battle, which had destroyed the prestige of the French nobility. The Edwardian phase of the war ended four years later in 1360, on favourable terms for England.

Poitiers was the second major English victory of the Hundred Years' War, coming a decade after the Battle of Crécy and about half a century before the Battle of Agincourt.The English army was led by Edward, the Black Prince, and composed primarily of English and Welsh troops, though there was a large contingent of Gascon and Breton soldiers with the army. Edward's army consisted of approximately 2,000 longbowmen, 3,000 men-at-arms, and a force of 1,000 Gascon infantry.

Like the earlier engagement at Crécy, the power of the English army lay in the longbow, a tall, thick self-bow made of yew. Longbows had demonstrated their effectiveness against massed infantry and cavalry in several battles, such as Falkirk in 1298, Halidon Hill in 1333, and Crécy in 1346. Poitiers was the second of three major English victories of the Hundred Years' War attributed to the longbow, though its effectiveness against armoured French knights and men-at-arms has been disputedGeoffrey the Baker wrote that the English archers under the Earl of Salisbury "made their arrows prevail over the French knights' armour",but the bowmen on the other flank, under Warwick, were initially ineffective against the mounted French men-at-arms who enjoyed the double protection of steel plate armour and large leather shields. Once Warwick's archers redeployed to a position where they could hit the unarmoured sides and backs of the horses, however, they quickly routed the cavalry force opposing them. The archers were also unquestionably effective against common infantry, who could not afford plate armour.

The English army was an experienced force; many archers were veterans of the earlier Battle of Crécy, and two of the key commanders, Sir John Chandos, and Captal de Buch were both experienced soldiers. The English army's divisions were led by Edward, the Black Prince, the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Salisbury, Sir John Chandos and Jean III de Grailly, the Captal de Buch.

Code: 23845

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A Superb Early 15th Century Azincourt Medieval Longbow Tanged Arrowhead

In very nicely preserved condition. Acquired, originally, in the 1820's when an English noble was on a Grand Tour of Northern France, near Azincourt, in the Pas-de-Calais. We purchased the descendant family's collection of grand tour antiquities, including their collection of arrow heads. like this fine piece, found from many famous battle sites around Europe some 200 years ago by the French peasant locals. The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) near Azincourt, in northern France.The unexpected English victory against the numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France and started a new period of English dominance in the war.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had resumed the war in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died from disease, and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the numerical disadvantage, the battle ended in an overwhelming victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army as he suffered from psychotic illnesses and associated mental incapacity. The French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers comprising nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy (1346) and Battle of Poitiers (1356). It forms the centrepiece of William Shakespeare's play Henry V, written in 1599.

Code: 23838

195.00 GBP

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A Good 1830's Back-Action Man-stopper Pistol By Cook.

Damascus twist steel barrel with gold lined breech, fine walnut stock with chequered butt, back action percussion action finely engraved, maker marked Cook of Bath. The earliest gun barrels were made of iron, brass and steel and in order to give them enough strength they ended up being very heavy. In 1634 a Hungarian named Caspar Hartman is attributed with adapting the Far Eastern method of making sword blades to enable the production of barrel tubes. From that point until the 1880’s, gun barrels were almost always formed this way and the process became known as the Damascus method. The origin of the term ‘Damascus steel’ is a little uncertain but almost certainly it is in recognition of the type of steel used in Middle Eastern sword making. In 1806 J.Jones was granted a British patent for the production of gun barrels using iron from horse shoe nails and steel from coach springs, interestingly the very best kinds of steel as they had been pounded and pounded in their previous working life every day for months or years. The Damascus barrels were made by layering anything from 8 to 24 pieces of alternating strips of iron and steel and forging them together. These strips were then twisted into a spiral and used to make a 3 or 4 piece plait. The whole piece was then beaten flat into a ‘ribbon’ that would be twisted around a central mandrel (solid rod). Clockwise for the right hand barrel and anti-clockwise for the left. This ribbon was then hammer-welded together (forged) and the central mandrel removed to leave the barrel ready for boring and striking off.

Generally, the more layers and plaits – the higher the quality. The lighter colour of the steel against the darker iron, combined with the twists, gave the barrels beautiful, almost reptilian patterns. The traditional final finish for Damascus barrels is for them to be ‘browned’. This is a controlled rusting process and all the specialist craftsmen involved in the industry carefully guarded their own individual process. The stock has surface bruises from service in its working life

Code: 23268

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SOLD A Kriegsmarine Naval Auxiliary Cruiser Badge By Friedrich Orth

Maker stamped and pin mount. The Auxiliary Cruiser War Badge (German: Kriegsabzeichen für Hilfskreuzer) was a World War II German military decoration awarded to officers and men of the Kriegsmarine for service on Auxiliary Cruisers. The award was instituted on 24 April 1941 by Grand Admiral Erich Raeder. The Second World War in the Atlantic is frequently remembered for the use of hundreds of German submarines, resulting in numerous Allied counter-measures, including convoys, escort ships, sonar, anti-submarine patrol aircraft, and more. Additionally, German surface combatants, such as the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, are similarly recalled for their occasional forays into the Atlantic to harass shipping. However, the Kriegsmarine utilized a third form of anti-commerce warship that has received far less attention: auxiliary cruisers. After purchase by the Kriegsmarine, the ships were equipped with six 150mm guns taken from outdated dreadnought-type battleships, two to six torpedo tubes mounted at deck level, four to six 37mm dual-purpose anti-aircraft guns, one 75mm gun, and dozens of mines to disrupt shipping lanes. These weapons were hidden behind fake hull plates and cargo, and were camouflaged in order to conceal their identity. All of the cruisers also carried at least one floatplane, usually either a Heinkel He-114 or Arado Ar-196. To maximize the ships’ value, the cruisers also carried spare torpedoes and mines to resupply U-Boats at sea. Despite these alterations, the only change to the exterior that might have indicated that the ships were not commercial was the raked bow installed of some of them to increase speed. The crews for these ships were unusual for the Kriegsmarine- they had volunteered for service on the auxiliary cruisers, and their officers were drawn from the reserve. A very small service within the kriegsmarine, and they suffered a lot of casualties, so these badges are a jolly nice and scarce find, plus, they have a superb artistic 'look' and their title belies their incredible success with their secret warfare tactics.
Designed by , the award featured a Viking longship sailing over the northern hemisphere of the globe surrounded by a laurel wreath of oak leaves. At the apex of the badge was a German Eagle clutching a swastika. The wreath, eagle and ship were in gilt and the globe area gray coloured. Versions were produced in bronze and later in zinc.
A special presentation version, featuring 15 small diamonds inlaid on the swastika, was presented in January 1942 by Grand Admiral Raeder to Kapitän zur see Bernhard Rogge, commander of the successful German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis. The Pinguin was a German auxiliary cruiser (Hilfskreuzer) which served as a commerce raider in World War II. Pinguin was known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 33, and designated HSK 5. The most successful commerce raider of the war, she was known to the British Royal Navy as Raider F. Schiff 33, the Pinguin had sailed over 59,000 miles (more than twice the circumference of the Earth) in 357 days at sea. She sank or captured 28 ships, a total of 136,642 gross register tons. 52,000 tons was sent back to Germany under prize crews. A further four ships were sunk by mines, a total of 18,068 tons. Pinguin's grand total amounts to 154,710 gross register tons. Pinguin was the first of the Kriegsmarine's Auxiliary Cruisers to be sunk.In the winter of 1939–40, she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine (KM) and converted to a warship by Deschimag A.G. Weser, Bremen. Her main armament, six 150 mm L/45 C/13 guns was taken from the obsolete battleship Schlesien and she was also fitted with one captured French 75 mm L/36 cannon, one twin 37 mm anti-aircraft mounting, four 20 mm anti-aircraft guns, and two single 53.3 cm torpedo tubes for 16 torpedoes. She was supplied with two Heinkel He 114A-2 seaplanes and 300 sea mines. She also carried 25 G7a torpedoes and 80 U-Boat mines for replenishing U-boats. the Kormoran. Originally built as the 8700-ton passenger freighter Steiermark, the Kormoran was the largest of the auxiliary cruisers, and was twice the size of both the Thor and the Komet. Kormoran was captained by Theodore Detmers, who sortied on December 4, 1940. In the next eleven months, the Kormoran sank or captured 12 ships, mostly in the Indian Ocean. Kormoran was sunk on November 19, 1941 in a mutually-destructive engagement with the light cruiser HMAS Sydney-Photo in the gallery of one of the 150mm guns still on the deck of the sunk Komoran at 8400 feet below sea level

Code: 23829

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A Superb Early 15th Century Azincourt Medieval Longbow Tanged Arrowhead

In very nicely preserved condition. Acquired, originally, in the 1820's while a noble was on a Grand Tour of Northern France near Azincourt, in the Pas-de-Calais. We purchased the descendant family's collection of grand tour antiquities, including their collection of arrow heads found from many battle sites around Europe around 200 years ago. The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) near Azincourt, in northern France.The unexpected English victory against the numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France and started a new period of English dominance in the war.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had resumed the war in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died from disease, and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the numerical disadvantage, the battle ended in an overwhelming victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army as he suffered from psychotic illnesses and associated mental incapacity. The French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers comprising nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy (1346) and Battle of Poitiers (1356). It forms the centrepiece of William Shakespeare's play Henry V, written in 1599.

Code: 23817

195.00 GBP

Archived


SOLD Incredible & Unique Historical Artefact, Autographed by 3 Field Marshals and 4 Generals. A Unique Copy of "They Led Us To Victory, Grand Pictorial Souvenir" 1945 Published by Bear, Hudson Ltd., 1945 Personally Autographed at The War Office in 19

The regular unsigned version is now scarce and difficult to find, but this example must likely be unique in the world. For it was collected by the commissionaire at the War Office in London after V.E Day and has the personal autographs of seven the Allied commanders, 3 Field Marshals and 4 Generals, General Slim, Field Marshal Montgomery, Field Marshal Alexander, Field Marshal Alan Brooke, Lt Gen Dempsey, Lt General Freyberg of New Zealand, Gen. Crerer of Canada, an amazing and unique collection and simply unheard of. This brochure was issued to celebrate those Principal National Figures of Britain, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, USA, and the USSR who led us to victory in WW2 numbered 527. a original 1945 booklet of 30 portraits of British, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, Russian, & American leaders grand pictorial souvenir. Superb whole page black and white portraits of Churchill, Eisenhower, Patton, Roosevelt, Leigh-Mallory, Harris, Tedder, Portal, Cunningham and many more. Considering its age this is in fine collectable condition. And it comes with a the amazing and unique autographs bonus, some individually can be priced at £400 plus each. A superb keepsake.

Code: 23364

1895.00 GBP

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Our Shop Is Closed, As Usual, This Coming August Bank Holiday Monday, the 30th.

We are closed on Sunday and August Bank Holiday Monday as usual. Of course the webstore operates as normal, 24-7. We are always available by phone though on 07721 010085 +44 7721 010085 and we re-open on Tuesday 31st August .

Code: 23810

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A Simply Superb 'New Land Pattern' Napoleonic Wars Light Dragoon Pistol For a British Trooper

British EIC Lion stamped lock with British proofs and ordnance marks, dated 1812. A jolly nice and tight flintlock service pistol in excellent condition. With fine walnut stock, steel barrel and brass furniture and mounts, steel lock with EIC & Lion stamp, with 'Crown 2' inspector's stamp, and British ordnance barrel inspection mark Crown over 9. With the 1778 Crowned C.P. & Crowned V. proof stamps of the London Gunmaker's Co. in Whitechapel. This pistol was manufactured in 1812, and its lock was inspected and stamped by Richard Duce, who was the official lock inspector from 1797 to 1818, and his mark was the Crown over 2. One of the 4,500 pairs contracted for the EIC Light Dragoons East India Co. but sold to the British Ordnance for the Light Dragoons and Hussars in the Napoleonic Wars. The East India Co. was an English and latterly a British company with an Army that was led by British officer's with a mixture of British and Indian other ranks. It had a most effective and powerful Navy and it's Army rivalled that of any in the world. It had many famous historical figures amongst it's members including, General Robert Clive aka Clive of India Lord Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, and a past EIC Governor was Elihu Yale who was a British merchant and philanthropist, Governor of the East India Company settlement in Bengal, at Calcutta and Chennai and a benefactor of the Collegiate School of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College of Connecticut USA in his honour. The East India Company was, an anomaly without a parallel in the history of the world. It originated from subscriptions, trifling in amount, of a few private individuals. It gradually became a commercial body with gigantic resources, and by the force of unforeseen circumstances assumed the form of a sovereign power.

The company's encounters with foreign competitors eventually required it to assemble its own military and administrative departments, thereby becoming an imperial power in its own right, though the British government began to reign it in by the late eighteenth century. Before Parliament created a government-controlled policy-making body with the Regulating Act of 1773 and the India Act eleven years later, shareholders' meetings made decisions about Britain's de facto colonies in the East. The Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion. The great Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Midnapore district in Odisha to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal. This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally.

With the gradual weakening of the Marathas in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars, the British also secured the Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, Broach, some districts of Gujarat, the fort of Ahmmadnagar, province of Cuttack (which included Mughalbandi/the coastal part of Odisha, Garjat/the princely states of Odisha, Balasore Port, parts of Midnapore district of West Bengal), Bombay (Mumbai) and the surrounding areas, leading to a formal end of the Maratha empire and firm establishment of the British East India Company in India.

Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, the rulers of the Kingdom of Mysore, offered much resistance to the British forces. Having sided with the French during the Revolutionary war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the death of Tipu Sultan.
The British government took away the Company's monopoly in 1813, and after 1834 it worked as the government's agency until the 1857 India Mutiny when the Colonial Office took full control. The East India Company went out of existence in 1873.

During its heyday, the East India Company not only established trade through Asia and the Middle East but also effectively became of the ruler of territories vastly larger than the United Kingdom itself. In addition, it also created, rather than conquered, colonies. Singapore, for example, was an island with very few Malay inhabitants in 1819 when Sir Stamford Raffles purchased it for the Company from their ruler, the Sultan of Johor, and created what eventually became one of the world's greatest trans-shipment ports. In flintlock and made at the Tower of London and used by the front-line British Cavalry regiments during the Peninsular War, War of 1812, and the Hundred Days War, culminating at Waterloo. Introduced in the 1796 and in production by 1802, the New land Cavalry Pistol provided one model of pistol for all of Britain's light cavalry and horse artillery. Another new element was the swivel ramrod which greatly improved the process of loading the pistol on horseback.
The service of British Cavalry regiments, particularly the Light Dragoons, proved essential in the mastery of the Indian Subcontinent. The Duke of Wellington, then Arthur Wellesley, was primarily recognised for his military genius by his battles in India. Of particular note was the Battle of Assaye in 1803 where the 6000 British faced a Mahratta Army of at least 40,000. During the engagement the 19th Light Dragoons saved the 74th Regiment by charging the enemy guns 'like a torrent that had burst its banks'. Pistols firing and sabre slashing, the 19th broke the enemy's position and the day was won. 19th Light Dragoons gained "Assaye" as a battle honour, and the nickname "Terrors of the East". The 19th Light Dragoons eventually served in North America during the War of 1812 and so did this form of pistol. Cavalry was the 'shock' arm, with lance and sabre the principal hand weapons. The division between 'heavy' and light was very marked during Wellington's time: 'heavy' cavalry were huge men on big horses, 'light' cavalry were more agile troopers on smaller mounts who could harass as well as shock.

During the Napoleonic Wars, French cavalry was unexcelled. Later as casualties and the passage of years took their toll, Napoleon found it difficult to maintain the same high standards of cavalry performance. At the same time, the British and their allies steadily improved on their cavalry, mainly by devoting more attention to its organization and training as well as by copying many of the French tactics, organisation and methods. During the Peninsular War, Wellington paid little heed to the employment of cavalry in operations, using it mainly for covering retreats and chasing routed French forces. But by the time of Waterloo it was the English cavalry that smashed the final attack of Napoleon's Old Guard.

Code: 23650

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SOLD. A Simply Stunning Napoleonic French Cuirassier Officer's Sword, Grand Armee Officer with Extremely Rare, Original, Winter Campaign Foul Weather Scabbard Cover

Unquestionably a museum worthy example. Probably the best totally original example complete with its winter campaign foul weather cover, we have ever seen, possibly even compared to the example in Les Invalides in Paris. In fact we have never seen an original foul weather cover in place in any museum collection in the world, it may possibly be the only example to survive past 1812. Original gilt to the hilt with original leather bound grip and multi wire binding. Blade engraved Foubisseur, A Metz, with cuirassier double fullers, and original hatchet tip, a French cuirassier and dragoon officers’ sword with Garde de Bataille style hilt.
Adopted in 1784 for Cavalry and Dragoon officers the guard features a detailed shell guard and four branches that encloses the guard side of the grip. while the counter guard is protected by a half shell and single bar. The guard was made of gilded brass
Because these swords were all private purchase, there is a large variation in their specifications. From blade length to weight, a round or an octagonal pommel. Examples can be found with flat blades, single or double fullers. Some are un-marked while others feature detailed maker. 1812

Napoleon’s Cuirassiers at Borodino
The final attack on the Great Redoubt occurred at 2:00 PM. Prince Eugene de Beauharnais sent three infantry divisions in a frontal attack, while the III Cavalry Corps advanced on the left and the II Cavalry Corps and IV Cavalry Corps advanced on the right. The cavalry on the right-hand side soon trotted past the marching infantry and drove for the left side of the redoubt. According to the Saxon colonel of the Zastrow Regiment, the young-looking La Tour-Maubourg deftly led the corps past the left end of the redoubt. Galloping over dead bodies from the earlier fighting, Lorges cuirassiers were the first into the fieldwork. Some cavalrymen forced their way through embrasures while others swept around the rear. Massed inside the Great Redoubt, the Russian infantry refused to give up as infantrymen and horsemen engaged in a wild frenzy of slaughter. When the French infantry finally burst into the fieldwork from the front, they quickly massacred the remaining defenders. Witnesses later described a ghastly scene with some corpses torn apart by artillery fire and others stacked several layers deep.

Because the infantry divisions were seriously depleted, the French had been obliged to use cavalry to flesh out their lines and to counter the threat of the ever-active Russian cavalry. It was a costly decision to make—the cavalrymen were perfect targets for the Russian gunners as line after line of mounted men stood motionless in the sun hour after hour. An infantry officer observed “long lines of French cavalry in whose ranks the enemy artillery blasted bloody lanes at every moment.”

A cuirassier captain described the unnerving experience firsthand: “The regiment was not required to charge but spent the day under fire from roundshot, shell and canister. We were surrounded by the dead and the dying. On two occasions I went to inspect the faces of the cuirassiers in my company and see which of them were brave. I was proud of them and told them so there and then. Upon going over to see a young officer, Monsieur de Gramont, who was behaving well, I saw some terrible things. He was telling me that he had nothing to complain about, but that he would appreciate a glass of water, when, no sooner had we finished talking, a roundshot came over and cut him in two.”

General Montbrun, commander of the II Cavalry Corps, was mortally wounded at this time and the French lost hundreds of troops and precious horses. But the French and allied cavalry were now put into motion—they were directed to support an attack on the Great Redoubt. General Caulaincourt, at the head of the 5th Cuirassiers, charged and attempted to storm into the rear of the redoubt. Caulaincourt fell, mortally wounded, and the cuirassiers were beaten off.

After Borodino

After the capture of Moscow, the French cavalry under Marshal Joachim Murat were assigned to watch the Russian camp near Tarutino. Camped in the open, men and horses sickened and died in large numbers. By mid-October, General Thielmann reported that the Saxon cavalry brigade could only muster 50 horses. La Tour-Maubourg led a remnant of his corps at the Battle of Krasnoi on 16 November 1812. On this occasion, the corps held off Russian cavalry and Cossacks, allowing the retreating army to utilise the main highway. About the time of this action, many units of the main army simply dissolved.
Superb scabbard condition for age overall, with bi-colour metal scabbard mounts, off set suspension rings, all original leather with original stitching very good. Leather foul weather cover has original eyelets for lacing tight, and central leather seam excellent with original stitching, adjoined top throat section.
Approx 35 inch blade

Code: 23805

4500.00 GBP

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A Superb, original, Early 15th Century Azincourt Medieval Longbow Tanged Chissel Arrowhead

In very nicely preserved condition. Acquired in the 1820's while on a Grand Tour of Northern France near Azincourt, in the Pas-de-Calais. From part three of our ancient arrow heads, spears, lead sling bullets, antiquities and rings from an 1820 Grand Tour Collection. The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) near Azincourt, in northern France.The unexpected English victory against the numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France and started a new period of English dominance in the war.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had resumed the war in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died from disease, and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the numerical disadvantage, the battle ended in an overwhelming victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army as he suffered from psychotic illnesses and associated mental incapacity. The French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers comprising nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy (1346) and Battle of Poitiers (1356). It forms the centrepiece of William Shakespeare's play Henry V, written in 1599. A wide variety of arrows were shot from the English longbow. Variations in length, fletchings and heads are all recorded. Perhaps the greatest diversity lies in arrows, with varieties like broad-arrow, wolf-arrow, dog-arrow, Welsh arrow and Scottish arrow being recorded. War arrows were ordered in the thousands for medieval armies and navies, supplied in sheaves normally of 24 arrows. For example, between 1341 and 1359 the English crown is known to have obtained 51,350 sheaves (1,232,400 arrows). The range of the medieval weapon is not accurately known, with much depending on both the power of the bow and the type of arrow. It has been suggested that a flight arrow of a professional archer of Edward III's time would reach 400 yd (370 m) but the longest mark shot at on the London practice ground of Finsbury Fields in the 16th century was 345 yd (315 m). Computer analysis by Warsaw University of Technology in 2017 has estimated that bodkin-point arrows could penetrate typical plate armour of the time at up to 225 metres (738 ft).A typical military longbow archer would be provided with between 60 and 72 arrows at the time of battle. Most archers would not shoot arrows at the maximum rate, as it would exhaust even the most experienced man. "With the heaviest bows [a modern war bow archer] does not like to try for more than six a minute." Not only do the arms and shoulder muscles tire from the exertion, but the fingers holding the bowstring become strained; therefore, actual rates of shooting in combat would vary considerably. Ranged volleys at the beginning of the battle would differ markedly from the closer, aimed shots as the battle progressed and the enemy neared. On the battlefield English archers stored their arrows stabbed upright into the ground at their feet, reducing the time it took to nock, draw and loose.

Arrows were not unlimited, so archers and their commanders took every effort to ration their use to the situation at hand. Nonetheless, resupply during battle was available. Young boys were often employed to run additional arrows to longbow archers while in their positions on the battlefield. "The longbow was the machine gun of the Middle Ages: accurate, deadly, possessed of a long range and rapid rate of fire, the flight of its missiles was likened to a storm".

In tests against a moving target simulating a galloping knight it took some approximately seven seconds to draw, aim and loose an armour-piercing heavy arrow using a replica war bow. It was found that in the seven seconds between the first and second shots the target advanced 70 yards and that the second shot occurred at such close range that, if it was a realistic contest, running away was the only option.

Code: 23799

190.00 GBP

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